Nicolaus Copernicus (German: Nikolaus Kopernikus; Italian: Nicol Copernico ; 19 February 1473 - 24 May 1543) was a Renaissance mathematician and astronomer who formulated a heliocentric model of the universe which placed the Sun, rather than the Earth, at the center.
Copernicus was born in Royal Prussia, a region of the Kingdom of Poland. He studied at the Jagiellonian University, Krakw, and subsequently at the Universities of Bologna, Padua and Ferrara.
The publication of Copernicus' book, De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres), just before his death in 1543, is considered a major event in the history of science. It began the Copernican Revolution and contributed importantly to the rise of the ensuing Scientific Revolution.
One of the great polymaths of the Renaissance, Copernicus was also a jurist with a doctorate in law, a physician, quadrilingual polyglot, classics scholar, translator, artist, governor, diplomat and economist who formulated Gresham's Law in the year (1519) of Thomas Gresham's birth