John Galsworthy OM (; 14 August 1867 – 31 January 1933) was an English novelist and playwright. Notable works include The Forsyte Saga (1906-1921) and its sequels, A Modern Comedy and End of the Chapter. He won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1932.
Galsworthy was born at what is now known as Galsworthy House (then called Parkhurst) on Kingston Hill in Surrey, England, the son of John and Blanche Bailey (ne Bartleet) Galsworthy. His family was prosperous and well established, with a large property in Kingston upon Thames that is now the site of three schools: Marymount International School, Rokeby Preparatory School, and Holy Cross Preparatory School. He attended Harrow and New College, Oxford. He took a Second in Law (Jurisprudentia) at Oxford in 1889, then trained as a barrister and was called to the bar in 1890. However, he was not keen to begin practising law and instead travelled abroad to look after the family’s shipping business. During these travels he met Joseph Conrad, then the first mate of a sailing-ship moored in the harbour of Adelaide, Australia, and the two future novelists became close friends. In 1895 Galsworthy began an affair with Ada Nemesis Pearson Cooper (1864-1956), the wife of his cousin Major Arthur Galsworthy. After her divorce ten years later, they were married on 23 September 1905 and stayed together until his death in 1933. Before their marriage, they often stayed clandestinely in a farmhouse called Wingstone in the village of Manaton on Dartmoor, Devon. In 1908 Galsworthy took a long lease on part of the building and it was their regular second home until 1923.
From the Four Winds, a collection of short stories, was Galsworthy’s first published work in 1897. These and several subsequent works were published under the pen name of John Sinjohn, and it was not until The Island Pharisees (1904) that he began publishing under his own name, probably owing to the recent death of his father. His first full-length novel, Jocelyn, was published in an edition of 750 under the name of John Sinjohn – he later refused to have it republished. His first play, The Silver Box (1906), – in which the theft of a prostitute’s purse by a rich ‘young man of good family’ is placed beside the theft of a silver cigarette case from the rich man’s father’s house by ‘a poor devil’, with very different repercussions, though justice was clearly done in each case – became a success, and he followed it up with The Man of Property (1906), the first book of a Forsyte trilogy. Although he continued writing both plays and novels, it was as a playwright that he was mainly appreciated at the time. Along with those of other writers of the period, such as George Bernard Shaw, his plays addressed the class system and other social issues, two of the best known being Strife (1909) and The Skin Game (1920).
He is now far better known for his novels, particularly The Forsyte Saga, his trilogy about the eponymous family and connected lives. These books, as with many of his other works, deal with social class, and upper-middle class lives in particular. Although sympathetic to his characters, he highlights their insular, snobbish, and acquisitive attitudes and their suffocating moral codes. He is viewed as one of the first writers of the Edwardian era who challenged some of the ideals of society depicted in the preceding literature of Victorian England. The depiction of a woman in an unhappy marriage furnishes another recurring theme in his work. The character of Irene in The Forsyte Saga is drawn from Ada Pearson, though her previous marriage was not as miserable as that of the character.
Through his writings Galsworthy campaigned for a variety of causes, including prison reform, women’s rights, and animal welfare, and also against censorship. During the First World War he worked in a hospital in France as an orderly, after being passed over for military service, and in 1917 turned down a knighthood, for which he was nominated by Prime Minister David Lloyd George, on the precept that a writer’s reward comes simply from writing itself. In 1921 he was elected as the first president of the PEN International literary club and was appointed to the Order of Merit in 1929. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1932 after he had been nominated that year by Henrik Schck, a member of the Swedish Academy. He was too ill to attend the Nobel awards ceremony and died six weeks later.
Galsworthy lived for the final seven years of his life at Bury in West Sussex. He died from a brain tumour at his London home, Grove Lodge, Hampstead. In accordance with his will he was cremated at Woking, with his ashes then being scattered over the South Downs from an aeroplane, but there are also memorials to him in Highgate ‘New’ Cemetery and in the cloisters of New College, Oxford, cut by Eric Gill. The popularity of his fiction waned quickly after his death but the hugely successful television adaptation of The Forsyte Saga in 1967 renewed interest in his work.
A number of John Galsworthy’s letters and papers are held at the University of Birmingham Special Collections.
Galsworthy’s sister Lilian (1864-1924) was married to the German painter and lithographer Georg Sauter since 1894. With the beginning of World War I Sauter was interned as an enemy alien at Alexandra Palace and later expelled. Their son Rudolf Sauter (1895-1971) was also a painter and graphic artist, who among other things, illustrated the works of his uncle.
The Forsyte Saga has been filmed several times:
- That Forsyte Woman (1949), dir. by Compton Bennett, an MGM adaptation in which Errol Flynn played a rare villainous role as Soames.
- BBC television drama (1967), directed by James Cellan Jones, David Giles, starring Eric Porter, Nyree Dawn Porter, Kenneth More, and Susan Hampshire, 26 parts.
- Granada television drama (2002), dir. by Christopher Menaul, starring Gina McKee, Damian Lewis, Rupert Graves, and Corin Redgrave, 13 parts.
One More River (a film version of Galsworthy’s Over the River) was filmed by James Whale in 1934. The film starred Frank Lawton, Colin Clive (one of Whale’s most frequently used actors) and Diana Wynyard, and featured Mrs. Patrick Campbell in a rare sound film appearance.
Galsworthy’s short story The Apple Tree was adapted into a radio play for Orson Welles‘ Lady Esther Almanac radio series on CBS, first broadcast on 12 January 1942; the play was again produced by Welles for CBS on The Mercury Summer Theatre of 6 September 1946. The 1988 film A Summer Story was also based on The Apple Tree.
- The Salvation of a Forsyte (The Salvation of Swithin Forsyte) (1900)
- On Forsyte ‘Change (1930) (Re-published 1986 as “Uncollected Forsyte”)
- The Man of Property, (1906) – first book of The Forsyte Saga (1922)
- Indian Summer of a Forsyte, (1918) – first interlude of The Forsyte Saga
- In Chancery, (1920) – second book of The Forsyte Saga
- Awakening, (1920) – second interlude of The Forsyte Saga
- To Let, (1921) – third book of The Forsyte Saga
- The White Monkey, (1924) – first book of A Modern Comedy (1929)
- The Silver Spoon, (1926) – second book of A Modern Comedy
- A Silent Wooing, (1927) – first Interlude of A Modern Comedy
- Passers-By, (1927) – second Interlude of A Modern Comedy
- Swan Song, (1928) – third book of A Modern Comedy
- Four Forsyte Stories, (1929) – A Sad Affair, Dog at Timothy’s, The Hondekoeter and Midsummer Madness
- Maid in Waiting, (1931) – first book of End of the Chapter (1934)
- Flowering Wilderness, (1932) – second book of End of the Chapter
- One More River (originally Over the River), (1933) – third book of End of the Chapter
- From the Four Winds, 1897 (as John Sinjohn)
- Jocelyn, 1898 (as John Sinjohn)
- Villa Rubein, 1900 (as John Sinjohn)
- A Man of Devon, 1901 (as John Sinjohn)
- The Island Pharisees, 1904
- The Silver Box, 1906 (his first play)
- The Country House, 1907
- A Commentary, 1908
- Fraternity, 1909
- A Justification for the Censorship of Plays, 1909
- Strife, 1909
- Joy, 1909
- Justice, 1910
- A Motley, 1910
- The Spirit of Punishment, 1910
- Horses in Mines, 1910
- The Patrician, 1911
- The Little Dream, 1911
- The Pigeon, 1912
- The Eldest Son, 1912
- Quality, 1912
- Moods, Songs, and Doggerels, 1912
- For Love of Beasts, 1912
- The Inn of Tranquillity, 1912
- Addresses in America, 1912
- The Dark Flower, 1913
- The Fugitive, 1913
- The Mob, 1914
- The Freelands, 1915
- The Little Man, 1915
- A Bit o’ Love, 1915
- A Sheaf, 1916
- The Apple Tree, 1916
- The Foundations, 1917
- Beyond, 1917
- Five Tales, 1918
- Saint’s Progress, 1919
- The Skin Game, 1920
- A Family Man, 1922
- Loyalties, 1922
- Windows, 1922
- Captures, 1923
- Abracadabra, 1924
- The Forest, 1924
- Old English, 1924
- The Show, 1925
- Escape, 1926
- Verses New and Old, 1926
- Castles in Spain, 1927
- The Manaton Edition, 1923-26 (collection, 30 vols.)
- Exiled, 1929
- The Roof, 1929
- Two Essays on Conrad, 1930
- Soames and the Flag, 1930
- The Creation of Character in Literature, 1931 (The Romanes Lecture for 1931).
- Forty Poems, 1932
- Autobiographical Letters of Galsworthy: A Correspondence with Frank Harris, 1933
- The Grove Edition, 1927-34 (collection, 27 Vols.)
- Collected Poems, 1934
- Punch and Go, 1935
- The Life and Letters, 1935
- The Winter Garden, 1935
- Forsytes, Pendyces and Others, 1935
- Selected Short Stories, 1935
- Glimpses and Reflections, 1937
- Galsworthy’s Letters to Leon Lion, 1968
- Letters from John Galsworthy 1900-1932, 1970
- Caravan the assembled tales of John Galsworthy, New York Charles Scribner’s Sons 1925
Notes and references
- Cherry, Bridget; Pevsner, Nikolaus (1983). The Buildings of England, London 2: South. Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England: Penguin Books. p. 321. ISBN 0 14 071047 7.
- Oxford University Calendar 1895, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1895, 262
- Cooper, Robert M. (1998). The Literary Guide & Companion to Southern England. Ohio University Press. pp. 323-324. ISBN 0-8214-1225-6. Retrieved ;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=The+Literary+Guide+%26+Companion+to+Southern+England&rft.pages=323-324&rft.pub=Ohio+University+Press&rft.date=1998&rft.isbn=0-8214-1225-6&rft.aulast=Cooper&rft.aufirst=Robert+M.&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3DIhsd3FGA4dQC&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AJohn+Galsworthy” class=”Z3988″>
- Galsworthy, John (1 January 1909). “The silver box, a comedy in three acts,”. C. Scribner’s Sons – via Open WorldCat.
- Description of the plot from John Galsworthy, by George Orwell, Monde 23 March 1929
- “Masterpiece Theatre – The Forsyte Saga, Series I – Essays + Interviews – John Galsworthy
(see 6)”. Public Broadcasting Service (PBS)(US). Retrieved ;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=Masterpiece+Theatre+-+The+Forsyte+Saga%2C+Series+I+-+Essays+%2B+Interviews+-+John+Galsworthy%3Cbr%3E%28see+%C2%B6+6%29&rft.pub=Public+Broadcasting+Service+%28PBS%29%28US%29&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.pbs.org%2Fwgbh%2Fmasterpiece%2Fforsyte%2Fei_galsworthy.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AJohn+Galsworthy” class=”Z3988″>
- “Nomination Database”.
- Geoffrey Harvey, Galsworthy, John (1867-1933), Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, May 2006, accessed 29 July 2012
- Other Writers. www.poetsgraves.co.uk
- John Galsworthy (1867-1933). Findagrave.com. Retrieved on 2012-07-29.
- “A History of the Workshop”. Archived from the original on 11 January 2010. Retrieved ;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=A+History+of+the+Workshop&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.kindersleyworkshop.co.uk%2Fhistmain.htm&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AJohn+Galsworthy” class=”Z3988″> . kindersleyworkshop.co.uk
- MacCarthy, Fiona (1989). Eric Gill. Faber & Faber. p. 276. ISBN 0-571-14302-4.
- Webb, Simon (2016). British Concentration Camps: A Brief History from 1900-1975. Pen and Sword. p. 50-51. ISBN 1473846323.
- “That Forsyte Woman (1949) – Articles – TCM.com”.
- “BFI Screenonline: Forsyte Saga, The (1967)”.
- Guider, Elizabeth (25 July 2004). “Review: ‘The Forsyte Saga‘“.
- “The Skin Game (1931) – Overview – TCM.com”.
- “One More River (1934) – Articles – TCM.com”.
- “21 Days Together (1940) – Articles – TCM.com”.
- “SUMMER STORY, A – Film from RadioTimes”.
- Reznick, Jeffrey S. (2009). John Galsworthy and Disabled Soldiers of the Great War. Manchester University Press.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to John Galsworthy.|
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: John Galsworthy|
|Wikisource has original works written by or about:
- Works by John Galsworthy at Project Gutenberg
- Works by or about John Galsworthy at Internet Archive
- Works by John Galsworthy at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
- The Forsyte Chronicles at eBooks@Adelaide
- Works by John Galsworthy at Open Library
- John Galsworthy at Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
- Interview with Galsworthy biographer Jeffrey Reznick on “New Books in History.”
- John Galsworthy letters. Available online through Lehigh University’s I Remain: A Digital Archive of Letters, Manuscripts, and Ephemera.
|Non-profit organization positions|
Catherine Amy Dawson Scott
|International President of PEN International
H. G. Wells