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Lionel Andrs Messi Cuccittini[note 1] (Spanish pronunciation:  (About this soundlisten);[A] born 24 June 1987) is an Argentine professional footballer who plays as a forward and captains both Spanish club Barcelona and the Argentina national team. Often considered the best player in the world and widely regarded as one of the greatest players of all time, Messi has won a record six Ballon d’Or awards,[note 2] and a record six European Golden Shoes. He has spent his entire professional career with Barcelona, where he has won a club-record 34 trophies, including ten La Liga titles, four UEFA Champions League titles and six Copas del Rey. A prolific goalscorer and a creative playmaker, Messi holds the records for most goals in La Liga (433), a La Liga and European league season (50), most hat-tricks in La Liga (35) and the UEFA Champions League (8), and most assists in La Liga (174) and the Copa Amrica (13). He has scored over 700 senior career goals for club and country.

Born and raised in central Argentina, Messi relocated to Spain to join Barcelona at age 13, for whom he made his competitive debut aged 17 in October 2004. He established himself as an integral player for the club within the next three years, and in his first uninterrupted season in 2008-09 he helped Barcelona achieve the first treble in Spanish football; that year, aged 22, Messi won his first Ballon d’Or. Three successful seasons followed, with Messi winning three consecutive Ballons d’Or, including an unprecedented fourth. During the 2011-12 season, he set the La Liga and European records for most goals scored in a single season, while establishing himself as Barcelona’s all-time top scorer. The following two seasons, Messi finished second for the Ballon d’Or behind Cristiano Ronaldohis perceived career rivalbefore regaining his best form during the 2014-15 campaign, becoming the all-time top scorer in La Liga and leading Barcelona to a historic second treble, after which he was awarded a fifth Ballon d’Or in 2015. Messi assumed the captaincy of Barcelona in 2018, and in 2019 he secured a record sixth Ballon d’Or.

An Argentine international, Messi is his country’s all-time leading goalscorer. At youth level, he won the 2005 FIFA World Youth Championship, finishing the tournament with both the Golden Ball and Golden Shoe, and an Olympic gold medal at the 2008 Summer Olympics. His style of play as a diminutive, left-footed dribbler drew comparisons with his compatriot Diego Maradona, who described Messi as his successor. After his senior debut in August 2005, Messi became the youngest Argentine to play and score in a FIFA World Cup during the 2006 edition, and reached the final of the 2007 Copa Amrica, where he was named young player of the tournament. As the squad’s captain from August 2011, he led Argentina to three consecutive finals: the 2014 FIFA World Cup, for which he won the Golden Ball, and the 2015 and 2016 Copas Amrica. After announcing his international retirement in 2016, he reversed his decision and led his country to qualification for the 2018 FIFA World Cup, and a third-place finish at the 2019 Copa Amrica.

One of the most famous athletes in the world, Messi has been sponsored by sportswear company Adidas since 2006 and has established himself as their leading brand endorser. According to France Football, Messi was the world’s highest-paid footballer for five years out of six between 2009 and 2014, and was ranked the world’s highest-paid athlete by Forbes in 2019. He was among Time‘s 100 most influential people in the world in 2011 and 2012.

Early life

Lionel Andrs Messi was born on 24 June 1987 in Rosario, the third of the four children of Jorge Messi, a steel factory manager, and his wife Celia Cuccittini, who worked in a magnet manufacturing workshop. On his father’s side, he is of Italian and Spanish descent, the great-grandson of immigrants from the northcentral Adriatic Marche region of Italy and Catalonia, and on his mother’s side, he has primarily Italian ancestry.[5] Growing up in a tight-knit, football-loving family, “Leo” developed a passion for the sport from an early age, playing constantly with his older brothers, Rodrigo and Matas, and his cousins, Maximiliano and Emanuel Biancucchi, both of whom became professional footballers.[9] At the age of four he joined local club Grandoli, where he was coached by his father, though his earliest influence as a player came from his maternal grandmother, Celia, who accompanied him to training and matches.[10] He was greatly affected by her death, shortly before his eleventh birthday; since then, as a devout Catholic, he has celebrated his goals by looking up and pointing to the sky in tribute of his grandmother.[11][12]


A lifelong supporter of Newell’s Old Boys, Messi joined the Rosario club when he was six years old. During the six years he played for Newell’s, he scored almost 500 goals as a member of “The Machine of ’87”, the near-unbeatable youth side named for the year of their birth, and regularly entertained crowds by performing ball tricks during half-time of the first team’s home games.[14][15] However, his future as a professional player was threatened when, at age 10, he was diagnosed with a growth hormone deficiency. As his father’s health insurance covered only two years of growth hormone treatment, which cost at least $1,000 per month, Newell’s agreed to contribute, but later reneged on their promise.[16] He was scouted by Buenos Aires club River Plate, whose playmaker, Pablo Aimar, he idolised, but they were also unable to pay for his treatment due to the country’s economic collapse.[17][18] His goalscoring idol growing up was Ronaldo, with Messi calling him “the best forward I’ve ever seen”.[19]

Messi enrolled at Barcelona’s youth academy, La Masia, at age 13

As the Messi family had relatives in Catalonia, they sought to arrange a trial with Barcelona in September 2000. First team director Charly Rexach immediately wanted to sign him, but the board of directors hesitated; at the time it was highly unusual for European clubs to sign foreign players of such a young age. On 14 December, an ultimatum was issued for Barcelona to prove their commitment, and Rexach, with no other paper at hand, offered a contract on a paper napkin.[17][20] In February 2001, the family relocated to Barcelona, where they moved into an apartment near the club’s stadium, Camp Nou. During his first year in Spain, Messi rarely played with the Infantiles due to a transfer conflict with Newell’s; as a foreigner, he could only be fielded in friendlies and the Catalan league. Without football, he struggled to integrate into the team; already reserved by nature, he was so quiet that his teammates initially believed he was mute. At home, he suffered from homesickness after his mother moved back to Rosario with his brothers and little sister, Mara Sol, while he stayed in Barcelona with his father.[14][20][21]

After a year at Barcelona’s youth academy, La Masia, Messi was finally enrolled in the Royal Spanish Football Federation (RFEF) in February 2002. Now playing in all competitions, he befriended his teammates, among whom were Cesc Fbregas and Gerard Piqu.[22] After completing his growth hormone treatment aged 14,[23] Messi became an integral part of the “Baby Dream Team”, Barcelona’s greatest-ever youth side. During his first full season (2002-03), he was top scorer with 36 goals in 30 games for the Cadetes A, who won an unprecedented treble of the league and both the Spanish and Catalan cups.[22][24] The Copa Catalunya final, a 4-1 victory over Espanyol, became known in club lore as the partido de la mscara, the final of the mask. A week after suffering a broken cheekbone during a league match, Messi was allowed to start the game on the condition that he wear a plastic protector; soon hindered by the mask, he took it off and scored two goals in 10 minutes before his substitution.[25] At the close of the season, he received an offer to join Arsenal, his first from a foreign club, but while Fbregas and Piqu soon left for England, he chose to remain in Barcelona.[20][26][27]

Club career


2003-05: Rise to the first team


During the 2003-04 season, his fourth with Barcelona, Messi rapidly progressed through the club’s ranks, debuting for a record five teams in a single campaign. After being named player of the tournament in four international pre-season competitions with the Juveniles B, he played only one official match with the team before being promoted to the Juveniles A, where he scored 18 goals in 11 league games.[29][30] Messi was then one of several youth players called up to strengthen a depleted first team during the international break. French winger Ludovic Giuly explained how a teenage Leo caught the eye in a training session with Frank Rijkaard‘s first team: “He destroyed us all… They were kicking him all over the place to avoid being ridiculed by this kid, he just got up and kept on playing. He would dribble past four players and score a goal. Even the team’s starting centre-backs were nervous. He was an alien.”[31]

At 16 years, four months, and 23 days old, Messi made his first team debut when he came on in the 75th minute during a friendly against Jos Mourinho‘s Porto on 16 November 2003.[20][32] His performance, creating two chances and a shot on goal, impressed the technical staff, and he subsequently began training daily with the club’s reserve side, Barcelona B, as well as weekly with the first team.[33] After his first training session with the senior squad, Bara’s new star player, Ronaldinho, told his teammates that he believed the 16-year-old would become an even better player than himself.[34] Ronaldinho soon befriended Messi, whom he called “little brother”, which greatly eased his transition into the first team.[35][36]

Messi playing against Mlaga in October 2005

To gain further match experience, Messi joined Barcelona C in addition to the Juveniles A, playing his first game for the third team on 29 November. He helped save them from the relegation zone of the Tercera Divisin, scoring five goals in ten games, including a hat-trick in eight minutes during a Copa del Rey match while man-marked by Sevilla‘s Sergio Ramos.[29][37] His progress was reflected in his first professional contract, signed on 4 February 2004, which lasted until 2012 and contained an initial buyout clause of 30 million. A month later, on 6 March, he made his debut for Barcelona B in the Segunda Divisin B, and his buyout clause automatically increased to 80 million.[29][38] He played five games with the B team that season but did not score.[39] Physically he was weaker than his opponents, who were often much older and taller, and in training he worked on increasing his muscle mass and overall strength in order to be able to shake off defenders. Towards the end of the season, he returned to both youth teams, helping the Juveniles B win the league. He finished the campaign having scored for four of his five teams with a total of 36 goals in all official competitions.[29][37]

During the 2004-05 season, Messi was a guaranteed starter for the B team, playing 17 games throughout the campaign and scoring on six occasions.[34][40] Since his debut the previous November, he had not been called up to the first team again, but in October 2004, the senior players asked manager Frank Rijkaard to promote him.[34] Since Ronaldinho already played on the left wing, Rijkaard moved Messi from his usual position onto the right flank (though initially against the player’s wishes), allowing him to cut into the centre of the pitch and shoot with his dominant left foot.[41][42] Messi made his league debut during the next match on 16 October, against Espanyol, coming on in the 82nd minute.[20] At 17 years, three months, and 22 days old, he was at the time the youngest player to represent Barcelona in an official competition.[36] As a substitute player, he played 77 minutes in nine matches for the first team that season, including his debut in the UEFA Champions League against Shakhtar Donetsk.[40][43] He scored his first senior goal on 1 May 2005, against Albacete, from an assist by Ronaldinho, becoming – at that time – the youngest-ever scorer for the club.[41][44] Barcelona, in their second season under Rijkaard, won the league for the first time in six years.[45]

2005-08: Becoming a starting eleven player


On 24 June 2005, his 18th birthday, Messi signed his first contract as a senior team player. It made him a Barcelona player until 2010, two years less than his previous contract, but his buyout clause increased to 150 million.[38] His breakthrough came two months later, on 24 August, during the Joan Gamper Trophy, Barcelona’s pre-season competition. A starter for the first time, he gave a well-received performance against Fabio Capello‘s Juventus, receiving an ovation from the Camp Nou.[46] While Capello requested to loan Messi, a bid to buy him came from Inter Milan, who were willing to pay his 150 million buyout clause and triple his wages.[47] According to then-president Joan Laporta, it was the only time the club faced a real risk of losing Messi, but he ultimately decided to stay.[48] On 16 September, his contract was updated for the second time in three months and extended to 2014.[38][49]

Messi during a training session with Barcelona in August 2006

Due to issues regarding his legal status in the Royal Spanish Football Federation, Messi missed the start of La Liga, but on 26 September, he acquired Spanish citizenship and became eligible to play.[49][50] Wearing the number 19 shirt, he gradually established himself as the first-choice right winger, forming an attacking trio with Ronaldinho and striker Samuel Eto’o.[27][51][52] He was in the starting line-up in major matches like his first Clsico against rivals Real Madrid on 19 November, as well as Barcelona’s away victory over Chelsea in the last 16 round of the Champions League.[53][51] After he had scored 8 goals in 25 games, including his first in the Champions League,[54] his season ended prematurely during the return leg against Chelsea on 7 March 2006, when he suffered a torn hamstring. Messi worked to regain fitness in time for the Champions League final, but on 17 May, the day of the final, he was eventually ruled out. He was so disappointed that he did not celebrate his team’s victory over Arsenal in Paris, something he later came to regret.[45][51]

While Barcelona began a gradual decline, the 19-year-old Messi established himself as one of the best players in the world during the 2006-07 campaign.[55][56] Already an idol to the culs, the club’s supporters, he scored 17 goals in 36 games across all competitions.[56][57] However, he continued to be plagued by major injuries; a metatarsal fracture sustained on 12 November 2006 kept him out of action for three months.[58][59] He recovered in time for the last 16 round of the Champions League against Liverpool, but was effectively marked out of the game; Barcelona, the reigning champions, were out of the competition.[60]In the league, his goal contribution increased towards the end of the season; 11 of his 14 goals came from the last 13 games.[57] On 10 March 2007, he scored his first hat-trick in a Clsico, the first player to do so in 12 years, equalising after each goal by Real Madrid to end the match in a 3-3 draw in injury time.[61] His growing importance to the club was reflected in a new contract, signed that month, which greatly increased his wages.[62]

Messi making his Maradona-esque run against Getafe in April 2007

Already frequently compared to compatriot Diego Maradona, Messi proved their similarity when he nearly replicated Maradona’s two most famous goals in the span of three weeks.[63] During a Copa del Rey semi-final against Getafe on 18 April, he scored a goal remarkably similar to Maradona’s goal in the quarter-finals of the 1986 FIFA World Cup, known as the Goal of the Century. Messi collected the ball on the right side near the halfway line, ran 60 metres (66 yd), and beat five defenders before scoring with an angled finish, just as Maradona had done.[17][64] A league match against Espanyol on 9 June saw him score by launching himself at the ball and guiding it past the goalkeeper with his hand in similar fashion to Maradona’s Hand of God goal in the same World Cup match.[65] As Messi continued his individual rise, Barcelona faltered; the team failed to reach the Copa del Rey final after Messi was rested during the second leg against Getafe and lost the league to Real Madrid on head-to-head results.[66][67]

After Ronaldinho lost form, Messi became Bara’s new star player at only 20 years old, receiving the nickname “Messiah” from the Spanish media.[17][68][69] His efforts in 2007 also earned him award recognition; journalists voted him the third-best player of the year for the 2007 Ballon d’Or, behind Kak and runner-up Cristiano Ronaldo, while international managers and national team captains voted him second for the FIFA World Player of the Year award, again behind Kak.[70][71] Although he managed to score 16 goals during the 2007-08 campaign,[72] the second half of his season was again marred by injuries after he suffered a torn hamstring on 15 December.[73] He returned to score twice in their away victory against Celtic in the last 16 round of the Champions League, becoming the competition’s top scorer at that point with six goals,[74] but reinjured himself during the return leg on 4 March 2008. Rijkaard had fielded him despite warning from the medical staff, leading captain Carles Puyol to criticise the Spanish media for pressuring Messi to play every match.[73] Barcelona finished the season without trophies, eliminated in the Champions League semi-finals by the eventual champions, Manchester United, and placed third in the league.[75]

After two unsuccessful seasons, Barcelona were in need of an overhaul, leading to the departure of Rijkaard and Ronaldinho. Upon the latter’s departure, Messi was given the number 10 shirt.[52] He signed a new contract in July 2008 on an annual salary of 7.8 million, becoming the club’s highest-paid player.[76][77] Ahead of the new season, a major concern remained his frequent muscular injuries, which had left him side-lined for a total of eight months between 2006 and 2008. To combat the problem, the club implemented new training, nutrition, and lifestyle regimens, and assigned him a personal physiotherapist, who would travel with him during call-ups for the Argentina national team. As a result, Messi remained virtually injury-free during the next four years, allowing him to reach his full potential.[59][78] Despite his injuries early in the year, his performances in 2008 saw him again voted runner-up for the Ballon d’Or and the FIFA World Player of the Year award, both times behind Cristiano Ronaldo.[70][79]

2009-11: Sustained success

In his first uninterrupted campaign, the 2008-09 season, he scored 38 goals in 51 games, contributing alongside Eto’o and winger Thierry Henry to a total of 100 goals in all competitions, a record at the time for the club.[80][81]

Messi aiming to shoot during the Champions League final against Manchester United in May 2009

During his first season under Barcelona’s new manager, former captain Pep Guardiola, Messi played mainly on the right wing, like he had under Rijkaard, though this time as a false winger with the freedom to cut inside and roam the centre. During the Clsico on 2 May 2009, however, he played for the first time as a false nine, positioned as a centre-forward but dropping deep into midfield to link up with Xavi and Andrs Iniesta. He assisted his side’s first goal and scored twice to end the match in an emphatic 6-2 victory, the team’s greatest-ever score at Real Madrid’s Santiago Bernabu Stadium.[82][83] Returning to the wing, he played his first final since breaking into the first team on 13 May, scoring once and assisting a second goal as Barcelona defeated Athletic Bilbao 4-1 to win the Copa del Rey.[84] With 23 league goals from Messi that season, Barcelona became La Liga champions three days later and achieved its fifth double.[80][85]

As the season’s Champions League top scorer with nine goals, the youngest in the tournament’s history,[86] Messi scored two goals and assisted two more to ensure a 4-0 quarter-final victory over Bayern Munich.[82] He returned as a false nine during the final on 27 May in Rome against Manchester United. Barcelona were crowned champions of Europe by winning the match 2-0, the second goal coming from a Messi header over goalkeeper Edwin van der Sar. Barcelona thus achieved the first treble in the history of Spanish football.[87][88] This success was reflected in a new contract, signed on 18 September, which committed Messi to the club through 2016 with a new buyout clause of 250 million, while his salary increased to 12 million.[76] His team’s prosperity continued into the second half of 2009, as Barcelona became the first club to achieve the sextuple, winning six top-tier trophies in a single year.[89] After victories in the Supercopa de Espaa and UEFA Super Cup in August, Barcelona won the FIFA Club World Cup against Estudiantes de La Plata on 19 December, with Messi scoring the winning 2-1 goal with his chest.[90] At 22 years old, Messi won the Ballon d’Or and the FIFA World Player of the Year award, both times by the greatest voting margin in each trophy’s history.[70]


Unsatisfied with his position on the right wing – with the clubs summer acquisition Zlatan Ibrahimovi occupying the central forward role – Messi resumed playing as a false nine in early 2010, beginning with a Champions League last 16-round match against VfB Stuttgart. After a first-leg draw, Barcelona won the second leg 4-0 with two goals and an assist from Messi. At that point, he effectively became the tactical focal point of Guardiola’s team, and his goalscoring rate increased.[92] Messi scored a total of 47 goals in all competitions that season, equaling Ronaldo‘s club record from the 1996-97 campaign.[93][94] He scored all of his side’s four goals in the Champions League quarter-final against Arsne Wenger‘s Arsenal on 6 April while becoming Barcelona’s all-time top scorer in the competition.[95][96] Although Barcelona were eliminated in the Champions League semi-finals by the eventual champions, Inter Milan, Messi finished the season as top scorer (with 8 goals) for the second consecutive year.[97] As the league’s top scorer with 34 goals (again tying Ronaldo’s record), he helped Barcelona win a second consecutive La Liga trophy with only a single defeat.[94][98]

Messi (centre) and his teammates celebrating winning the FIFA Club World Cup in December 2011

Messi secured Barcelona’s first trophy of the 2010-11 campaign, the Supercopa de Espaa, by scoring a hat-trick in his side’s second-leg 4-0 victory over Sevilla, after a first-leg defeat.[99] Assuming a playmaking role, he was again instrumental in a Clsico on 29 November 2010, the first with Jos Mourinho in charge of Real Madrid, as Barcelona defeated their rivals 5-0.[100] Messi helped the team achieve 16 consecutive league victories, a record in Spanish football, concluding with another hat-trick against Atltico Madrid on 5 February 2011.[101][102] His club performances in 2010 earned him the inaugural FIFA Ballon d’Or, an amalgamation of the Ballon d’Or and the FIFA World Player of the Year award, though his win was met with some criticism due to his lack of success with Argentina at the 2010 FIFA World Cup.[70][103] Under the award’s old format, he would have placed just outside the top three, owing his win to the votes from the international coaches and captains.[103]

Towards the end of the season, Barcelona played four Clsicos in the span of 18 days. A league match on 16 April ended in a draw after a penalty from Messi. After Barcelona lost the Copa del Rey final four days later, Messi scored both goals in his side’s 2-0 win in the first leg of the Champions League semi-finals in Madrid, the second of which – a slaloming dribble past three Real players – was acclaimed as one of the best ever in the competition.[104] Although he did not score, he was again important in the second-leg draw that sent Barcelona through to the Champions League final,[105][106] where they faced Manchester United in a repeat of the final two years earlier. As the competition’s top scorer for the third consecutive year, with 12 goals, Messi gave a man-of-the-match performance at Wembley on 28 May, scoring the match-winning goal of Bara’s 3-1 victory.[107][108] Barcelona won a third consecutive La Liga title. In addition to his 31 goals, Messi was also the league’s top assist provider with 18.[109][110] He finished the season with 53 goals and 24 assists in all competitions, becoming Barcelona’s all-time single-season top scorer and the first player in Spanish football to reach the 50-goal benchmark.[109][111]

As Messi developed into a combination of a number 8 (a creator), a 9 (scorer), and a 10 (assistant),[112] he scored an unprecedented 73 goals and provided 29 assists in all club competitions during the 2011-12 season, producing a hat-trick or more on 10 occasions.[113][114][115] He began the campaign by helping Barcelona win both the Spanish and European Super Cups; in the Supercopa de Espaa, he scored three times to achieve a 5-4 aggregate victory over Real Madrid, overtaking Ral as the competition’s all-time top scorer with eight goals.[116][117] At the close of the year, on 18 December, he scored twice in the FIFA Club World Cup final, a 4-0 victory over Santos, earning the Golden Ball as the best player of the tournament, as he had done two years previously.[118] For his efforts in 2011, he again received the FIFA Ballon d’Or, becoming only the fourth player in history to win the Ballon d’Or three times, after Johan Cruyff, Michel Platini, and Marco van Basten.[119] Additionally, he won the inaugural UEFA Best Player in Europe Award, a revival of the old-style Ballon d’Or.[120] By then, Messi was already widely considered one of the best footballers in history, alongside players like Diego Maradona and Pel.[21]

2012: A record-breaking year


As Messi maintained his goalscoring form into the second half of the season, the year 2012 saw him break several longstanding records. On 7 March, two weeks after scoring four goals in a league fixture against Valencia, he scored five times in a Champions League last 16-round match against Bayer Leverkusen, an unprecedented achievement in the history of the competition.[123][124] In addition to being the joint top assist provider with five assists, this feat made him top scorer with 14 goals, tying Jos Altafini‘s record from the 1962-63 season, as well as becoming only the second player after Gerd Mller to be top scorer in four campaigns.[125][126] Two weeks later, on 20 March, Messi became the top goalscorer in Barcelona’s history at 24 years old, overtaking the 57-year record of Csar Rodrguez‘s 232 goals with a hat-trick against Granada.[122]

Messi pointing to the sky following his record five-goal display against Bayer Leverkusen in the last 16 of the UEFA Champions League in March 2012

Despite Messi’s individual form, Barcelona’s four-year cycle of success under Guardiola – one of the greatest eras in the club’s history – drew to an end.[127] Although Barcelona won the Copa del Rey against Athletic Bilbao on 25 May, its 14th title of that period, the team lost the league to Real Madrid and was eliminated in the Champions League semi-finals by the eventual champions, Chelsea, with Messi sending a crucial second-leg penalty kick against the crossbar.[128][129] In Bara’s last home league match on 5 May, against Espanyol, Messi scored all four goals before approaching the bench to embrace Guardiola, who had announced his resignation as manager.[130] He finished the season as league top scorer in Spain and Europe for a second time, with 50 goals, a La Liga record, while his 73 goals in all competitions surpassed Gerd Mller‘s 67 goals in the 1972-73 Bundesliga season, making him the single-season top scorer in the history of European club football.[131][132]

Under manager Tito Vilanova, who had first coached him aged 14 at La Masia, Messi helped the club achieve its best-ever start to a La Liga season during the second half of 2012, amassing 55 points by the competition’s midway point, a record in Spanish football.[133][134] A double scored on 9 December against Real Betis saw Messi break two longstanding records: he surpassed Csar Rodrguez’s record of 190 league goals, becoming Barcelona’s all-time top scorer in La Liga, and Gerd Mller’s record of most goals scored in a calendar year, overtaking his 85 goals scored in 1972 for Bayern Munich and Germany.[135] Messi sent Mller a number 10 Barcelona shirt, signed “with respect and admiration”, after breaking his 40-year record.[136] At the close of the year, Messi had scored a record 91 goals in all competitions for Barcelona and Argentina.[137] Although FIFA did not acknowledge the achievement, citing verifiability issues, he received the Guinness World Records title for most goals scored in a calendar year.[138][139] As the odds-on favourite, Messi again won the FIFA Ballon d’Or, becoming the only player in history to win the Ballon d’Or four times.[137][140]

2013-14: Messidependencia

Barcelona had virtually secured their La Liga title by the start of 2013, eventually equalling Real Madrid’s 100-point record of the previous season. However, their performances deteriorated in the second half of the 2012-13 campaign, concurrently with Vilanova’s absence due to ill health.[141] After losing successive Clsicos, including the Copa del Rey semi-finals, they were nearly eliminated in the first knockout round of the Champions League by Milan, but a revival of form in the second leg led to a 4-0 comeback, with two goals and an assist from Messi.[142] Now in his ninth senior season with Barcelona, Messi signed a new contract on 7 February, committing himself to the club through 2018, while his fixed wage rose to 13 million.[143][144] He wore the captain’s armband for the first time a month later, on 17 March, in a league match against Rayo Vallecano; by then, he had become the team’s tactical focal point to a degree that was arguably rivalled only by former Barcelona players Josep Samitier, Lszl Kubala and Johan Cruyff.[145] Since his evolution into a false nine three years earlier, his input into the team’s attack had increased exponentially; from 24% in their treble-winning campaign, his goal contribution rose to more than 40% that season.[146]


After four largely injury-free seasons, the muscular injuries that had previously plagued Messi reoccurred. After he suffered a hamstring strain on 2 April, during the first quarter-final against Paris Saint-Germain, his appearances became sporadic. In the second leg against PSG, with an underperforming Barcelona down a goal, Messi came off the bench in the second half and within nine minutes helped create their game-tying goal, which allowed them to progress to the semi-finals. Still unfit, he proved ineffective during the first leg against Bayern Munich and was unable to play at all during the second, as Barcelona were defeated 7-0 on aggregate by the eventual champions.[148] These matches gave credence to the notion of Messidependencia, Barcelona’s perceived tactical and psychological dependence on their star player.[148]

Messi during a game against Almera in March 2014

Messi continued to struggle with injury throughout 2013, eventually parting ways with his long-time personal physiotherapist.[149] Further damage to his hamstring sustained on 12 May ended his goalscoring streak of 21 consecutive league games, a worldwide record; he had netted 33 goals during his run, including a four-goal display against Osasuna, while becoming the first player to score consecutively against all 19 opposition teams in La Liga.[150][151] With 60 goals in all competitions, including 46 goals in La Liga, he finished the campaign as league top scorer in Spain and Europe for the second consecutive year, becoming the first player in history to win the European Golden Shoe three times.[152][153] Following an irregular start to the new season under manager Gerardo Martino, formerly of his boyhood club Newell’s Old Boys, Messi suffered his fifth injury of 2013 when he tore his hamstring on 10 November, leaving him sidelined for two months.[154][155] Despite his injuries, he was voted runner-up for the FIFA Ballon d’Or, relinquishing the award after a four-year monopoly to Cristiano Ronaldo.[156]

During the second half of the 2013-14 season, doubts persisted over Messi’s form, leading to a perception among the culs that he was reserving himself for the 2014 FIFA World Cup. Statistically, his contribution of goals, shots, and passes had dropped significantly compared to previous seasons.[157][158] He still managed to break two longstanding records in a span of seven days: a hat-trick on 16 March against Osasuna saw him overtake Paulino Alcntara‘s 369 goals to become Barcelona’s top goalscorer in all competitions including friendlies, while another hat-trick against Real Madrid on 23 March made him the all-time top scorer in El Clsico, ahead of the 18 goals scored by former Real Madrid player Alfredo Di Stfano.[157][159] Messi finished the campaign with his worst output in five seasons, though he still managed to score 41 goals in all competitions.[158][160] For the first time in five years, Barcelona ended the season without a major trophy; they were defeated in the Copa del Rey final by Real Madrid and lost the league in the last game to Atltico Madrid, causing Messi to be booed by sections of fans at the Camp Nou.[161] After prolonged speculation over his future with the club, Messi signed a new contract on 19 May 2014, only a year after his last contractual update; his salary increased to 20 million, or 36 million before taxes, the highest wage in the sport.[162]

2014-15: A historic treble

Messi celebrating his second goal against Granada in September 2014

Under new manager and former captain Luis Enrique, Messi experienced a largely injury-free start to the 2014-15 season, allowing him to break three more longstanding records towards the end of the year.[163] A hat-trick scored against Sevilla on 22 November made him the all-time top scorer in La Liga, as he surpassed the 59-year record of 251 league goals held by Telmo Zarra.[164] A third hat-trick, scored against city rivals Espanyol on 7 December, allowed him to surpass Csar Rodrguez as the all-time top scorer in the Derbi barcelon with 12 goals.[165] Messi again placed second in the FIFA Ballon d’Or behind Cristiano Ronaldo, largely owing to his second-place achievement with Argentina at the World Cup.[166]

At the start of 2015, Barcelona were perceived to be headed for another disappointing end to the season, with renewed speculation in the media that Messi was leaving the club. A turning point came on 11 January during a 3-1 victory over Atltico Madrid, the first time Bara’s attacking trident of Messi, Luis Surez and Neymar, dubbed “MSN”, each scored in a match, marking the beginning of a highly successful run.[167][168] After five years of playing in the centre of the pitch, Messi had returned to his old position on the right wing late the previous year, by his own suggestion according to Surez, their striker.[168][169] From there, he regained his best – arguably his best-ever – form, while Surez and Neymar ended the team’s attacking dependency on their star player.[170][171] With 58 goals from Messi, the trio scored a total of 122 goals in all competitions that season, a record in Spanish football.[172]

Messi dribbling past Juventus defender Patrice Evra during the UEFA Champions League Final in June 2015. Prior to the match, Juventus captain Gianluigi Buffon stated, “Messi is an alien that dedicates himself to playing with humans”.[173]

Towards the end of the campaign, Messi scored in a 1-0 away win over Atltico Madrid on 17 May, securing the La Liga title.[174] Among his 43 league goals that season was a hat-trick scored in 11 minutes against Rayo Vallecano on 8 March, the fastest of his senior career; it was his 32nd hat-trick overall for Barcelona, allowing him to overtake Telmo Zarra with the most hat-tricks in Spanish football.[175] As the season’s top assist provider with 18 he surpassed Lus Figo with the most assists in La Liga;[note 3] he made his record 106th assist in a fixture against Levante on 15 February, in which he also scored a hat-trick.[176][177][178] Messi scored twice as Barcelona defeated Athletic Bilbao 3-1 in the Copa del Rey final on 30 May, achieving the sixth double in their history. His opening goal was hailed as one of the greatest in his career; he collected the ball near the halfway line and beat four opposing players, before feinting the goalkeeper to score in a tight space by the near post.[179]

In the Champions League, Messi scored twice and assisted on another in their 3-0 semi-final victory over Bayern Munich, now under the stewardship of Guardiola.[180] His second goal, which came only three minutes after his first, saw him chip the ball over goalkeeper Manuel Neuer after his dribble past Jrme Boateng had made the defender drop to the ground; it went viral, becoming the year’s most tweeted about sporting moment, and was named the best goal of the season by UEFA.[181][182] Despite a second-leg loss, Barcelona progressed to the final on 6 June in Berlin, where they defeated Juventus 3-1 to win their second treble, becoming the first team in history to do so.[183][184] Although Messi did not score, he participated in each of his side’s goals, particularly the second as he forced a parried save from goalkeeper Gianluigi Buffon from which Surez scored the match-winning goal on the rebound.[172] In addition to being the top assist provider with six assists, Messi finished the competition as the joint top scorer with ten goals, which earned him the distinction of being the first player ever to achieve the top scoring mark in five Champions League seasons.[185][186] For his efforts during the season, he received the UEFA Best Player in Europe award for a second time.[187]

2015-16: Domestic success

Messi holding off Sevilla’s ver Banega during the 2015 UEFA Super Cup in Tbilisi

Messi opened the 2015-16 season by scoring twice from free kicks in Barcelona’s 5-4 victory (after extra time) over Sevilla in the UEFA Super Cup.[188] On 16 September, he became the youngest player to make 100 appearances in the UEFA Champions League in a 1-1 away draw to Roma.[189] After a knee injury, he returned to the pitch on 21 November, making a substitute appearance in Barcelona’s 4-0 away win over rivals Real Madrid in El Clsico.[190] Messi capped off the year by winning the 2015 FIFA Club World Cup Final on 20 December, collecting his fifth club trophy of 2015 as Barcelona defeated River Plate 3-0 in Yokohama.[191] On 30 December, Messi scored on his 500th appearance for Barcelona, in a 4-0 home win over Real Betis.[192]

On 11 January 2016, Messi won the FIFA Ballon d’Or for a record fifth time in his career.[193] On 3 February, he scored a hat-trick in Barcelona’s 7-0 win against Valencia in the first leg of the Copa del Rey semi-final at the Camp Nou.[194] In a 6-1 home win against Celta de Vigo in the league, Messi assisted Surez from a penalty kick. Some saw it as “a touch of genius”, while others criticised it as being disrespectful to the opponent. The Celta players never complained and their coach defended the penalty, stating, “Barca’s forwards are very respectful.” The penalty routine has been compared to that of Bara icon Johan Cruyff in 1982, who was battling lung cancer, leading many fans to indicate that the penalty was a tribute to him. Cruyff himself was “very happy” with the play, insisting “it was legal and entertaining”.[195][196]

On 17 February, Messi reached his 300th league goal in a 1-3 away win against Sporting de Gijn.[197] A few days later, he scored both goals in Barcelona’s 0-2 win against Arsenal at the Emirates Stadium, in the first leg of the 2015-16 UEFA Champions League round of 16, with the second goal being Barcelona’s 10,000th in official competitions.[198] On 17 April, Messi ended a five-match scoring drought with his 500th senior career goal for club and country in Barcelona’s 2-1 home loss to Valencia.[199] Messi finished the 2015-16 season by setting up both goals in Barcelona’s 2-0 extra time win over Sevilla in the 2016 Copa del Rey Final, at the Vicente Caldern Stadium, on 22 May 2016, as the club celebrated winning the domestic double for the second consecutive season.[200] In total, Messi scored 41 goals and provided 23 assists, as Barcelona’s attacking trio managed a Spanish record of 131 goals throughout the season, breaking the record they had set the previous season.[201]

2016-17: Fourth Golden Boot


Messi opened the 2016-17 season by lifting the 2016 Supercopa de Espaa as Barcelona’s captain in the absence of the injured Andrs Iniesta;[203] he set-up Munir‘s goal in a 2-0 away win over Sevilla in the first leg on 14 August,[204] and subsequently scored and assisted in a 3-0 win in the return leg on 17 August.[205] Three days later, he scored two goals and provided an assist to lead Barcelona to a 6-2 victory against Real Betis in the opening game of the 2016-17 La Liga season.[206] On 13 September 2016, Messi scored his first hat-trick of the season in the opening game of the 2016-17 UEFA Champions League campaign against Celtic in a 7-0 victory; this was also Messi’s sixth hat-trick in the Champions League, the most by any player. A week later, Messi sustained a groin injury in a 1-1 draw against Atltico Madrid and was ruled out with injury for three weeks.[207] He marked his return with a goal, scoring three minutes after coming off the bench in a 4-0 home win over Deportivo de La Corua, on 16 October.[208] Three days after this, he netted his thirty-seventh club hat-trick as Barcelona defeated Manchester City 4-0.[209] On 1 November, Messi scored his 54th Champions League group stage goal in Barcelona’s 3-1 away loss to Manchester City, surpassing the previous record of 53 goals held by Ral.[210]

Messi prior to a friendly game with Al Ahli SC in Doha, Qatar in December 2016

Messi finished the year with 51 goals, making him Europe’s top scorer, one ahead of Zlatan Ibrahimovi.[211] After placing second in the 2016 Ballon d’Or, on 9 January 2017 Messi also finished in second place – behind Cristiano Ronaldo once again – in the 2016 Best FIFA Men’s Player Award.[212] On 11 January, Messi scored from a free-kick in Barcelona’s 3-1 victory against Athletic Bilbao in the second leg of the round of 16 of the Copa del Rey, which enabled Barcelona to advance to the quarter-finals of the competition; with his 26th goal from a free-kick for Barcelona in all competitions, he equalled the club’s all-time record, which had previously been set by Ronald Koeman.[213] In his next league match, on 14 January, Messi scored in a 5-0 win against Las Palmas; with this goal, he equalled Ral’s record for the most number of teams scored against in La Liga (35).[214]

On 4 February 2017, Messi scored his 27th free-kick for Barcelona in a 3-0 home win over Athletic Bilbao in the league, overtaking Koeman as the club’s all-time top-scorer from free-kicks.[215] On 23 April, Messi scored twice in a 3-2 away win over Real Madrid. His game-winning goal in stoppage time was his 500th for Barcelona.[216] His memorable celebration saw him taking off his Barcelona shirt and holding it up to incensed Real Madrid fans – with his name and number facing the crowd.[217] On 27 May, Messi scored a goal and set up another for Paco Alccer in the 2017 Copa del Rey Final, helping Barcelona to a 3-1 victory over Alavs, and was named Man of the Match.[218] In total, Messi finished the 2016-17 season with 54 goals and 16 assists, while his 37 goals in La Liga saw him claim both the Pichichi and European Golden Boot Awards for the fourth time in his career.[219]

2017-18: Domestic double and a record fifth Golden Boot

Messi opened the 2017-18 season by converting a penalty in Barcelona’s 1-3 first leg home defeat to Real Madrid in Supercopa de Espaa.[220] Thereby, Messi also extended his El Clsico goalscoring record with the goal being his 24th official and 25th overall.[221]On 9 September, Messi scored his first hat-trick of the 2017-18 league campaign, against Espanyol in derbi barcelon, thus helping to secure a 5-0 home victory for Blaugrana over local rivals.[222] Messi netted twice against Gianluigi Buffon, on 12 September, as Bara defeated the last season’s Italian champions Juventus 3-0 at home in the UEFA Champions League.[223] On 19 September, Messi found the net four times in a 6-1 trashing of Eibar at the Camp Nou in La Liga.[224] Three weeks later, on 1 October, Messi surpassed his former teammate Carles Puyol to become the third highest appearance maker in the club’s history, as he helped Bara defeat Las Palmas 3-0 by assisting Sergio Busquets‘ opener and later adding two himself in his 594th official game for the club; the league game was played behind closed doors at the Camp Nou due to violence in Catalonia relating to an ongoing independence referendum.[225]

On 18 October, in his 122nd European club appearance, Messi scored his 97th UEFA Champions League goal, and his 100th in all UEFA club competitions, in a 3-1 home victory over Olympiakos.[226] Messi became only the second player after Cristiano Ronaldo to reach this century milestone, but accomplished it in 21 fewer appearances than the Portuguese counterpart.[227] On 4 November, he made his 600th appearance for Barcelona in a 2-1 home win over Sevilla in La Liga.[228] Following the reception of his fourth Golden Boot, Messi signed a new deal with Barcelona on 25 November, keeping him with the club through the 2020-21 season. His buyout clause was set at 700 million.[229] On 7 January 2018, Messi made his 400th La Liga appearance with Barcelona in a 3-0 home win over Levante, marking the occasion with his 144th league assist and 365th league goal for the club, the latter of which saw him equal Gerd Mller’s record for the most league goals scored for the same club in one of Europe’s top five divisions.[230] A week later, he broke the record, scoring his 366th La Liga goal from a free kick in a 4-2 away win against Real Sociedad.[230]

On 4 March, he scored his 600th senior career goal from a free kick in a 1-0 home win over Atltico Madrid, in La Liga.[231] On 14 March, Messi scored his 99th and 100th Champions League goals in a 3-0 home win over Chelsea, becoming only the second player after Cristiano Ronaldo to reach this landmark, and achieving it at a younger age, in fewer appearances, having played fewer minutes, and having taken fewer shots than his Portuguese counterpart.[232] His opening goal, which came after only two minutes and eight seconds, was also the fastest of his career, as Barcelona advanced to the quarter-finals of the competition for the eleventh consecutive season.[233] On 7 April, he scored a hat-trick in a 3-1 win over Legans including his sixth goal scored from a free-kick for the season, matching the record set by former teammate Ronaldinho.[234] He once again finished the season as the top scorer in La Liga, with 34 goals, which also saw him win his fifth Golden Shoe award.[235] On 21 April, Messi scored Barcelona’s second goal – his 40th of the season – in a 5-0 win over Sevilla in the 2018 Copa del Rey Final, later also setting up Surez’s second goal; this was Barcelona’s fourth consecutive title and their 30th overall.[236] On 29 April, Messi scored a hat-trick in a 4-2 away win over Deportivo de La Corua, which saw Barcelona claim their 25th league title.[237] On 9 May, Messi scored as Barcelona defeated Villarreal 5-1 to set the longest unbeaten streak (43 games) in La Liga history.[238]

2018-19: Barcelona captain, tenth La Liga title, and a record sixth Golden Boot

With the departure of former captain Andrs Iniesta in May 2018, Messi was named the team’s new captain for the following season.[239] On 12 August 2018, he lifted his first title as Barcelona’s captain, the Supercopa de Espaa, following a 2-1 victory over Sevilla. On 19 August, Messi scored twice in helping Barcelona defeat Alavs 3-0 in their first La Liga match of the season, with his first goal, a free kick that he rolled under the jumping Alavs wall, making history in being Barcelona’s 6000th goal in La Liga.[240] On 18 September, Messi scored a hat-trick in a 4-0 home win over PSV Eindhoven in Barcelona’s opening Champions League group stage match of the season, setting a new record for most hat-tricks in the competition, with eight.[241] On 20 October, Messi scored and assisted in a 4-2 home win over Sevilla, but was later forced off in the 26th minute after falling awkwardly and injuring his right arm; tests later confirmed that he had fractured his radial bone, ruling him out for approximately three weeks.[242] On 8 December, Messi scored two free kicks – his ninth and tenth goals from set pieces during the calendar year – in a 4-0 away win over Catalan Derby rivals Espanyol in La Liga; this was the first time ever that he had managed such a feat in the league. His first goal was also his 10th league goal of the season, making him the first player ever to reach double figures in La Liga for 13 consecutive seasons.[243]

Messi taking a freekick against Real Valladolid in August 2018

On 13 January 2019, Messi scored his 400th La Liga goal in his 435th league appearance in a 3-0 home win over Eibar, becoming the first player ever to manage this tally in just one of Europe’s top five leagues.[244] On 2 February, Messi scored twice in a 2-2 draw against Valencia, with his first goal coming from the penalty spot, his 50th La Liga penalty goal; as such, he became only the third player in La Liga history after Cristiano Ronaldo and Hugo Snchez to score 50 penalties in the competition.[245] Later that month, the club admitted they had begun preparations for Messi’s future retirement.[246] On 23 February, Messi scored the 50th hat-trick of his career and also provided an assist for Surez, as he helped Barcelona come from behind to achieve a 4-2 away victory over Sevilla in La Liga; the goal was also his 650th career goal for club and country at senior level.[247] On 16 April, Messi scored twice in a 3-0 home victory over Manchester United in the second leg of the Champions League quarter-finals to give Barcelona a 4-0 aggregate win, which saw Barcelona progress to the semi-finals of the competition for the first time since 2015; these were also his first goals in the Champions League quarter-finals since 2013.[248][249]

On 27 April, Messi came off the bench and scored the only goal in a 1-0 home win over Levante, which allowed Barcelona to clinch the league title;[250] this was his 450th La Liga appearance, and his first league title as Barcelona’s captain.[251][252] On 1 May, Messi scored twice in a 3-0 home win over Liverpool in the first leg of the Champions League semi-finals; his second goal of the match, a 35-yard free kick, was the 600th senior club goal of his career, all of which had been scored with Barcelona.[253] In the return leg six days later at Anfield, Barcelona suffered a 4-0 away defeat, which saw Liverpool advance to the final 4-3 on aggregate.[254] On 19 May, in Barcelona’s final La Liga match of the season, Messi scored twice in a 2-2 away draw against Eibar (his 49th and 50th goals of the season in all competitions), which saw him capture his sixth Pichichi Trophy as the league’s top scorer, with 36 goals in 34 appearances; with six titles, he equalled Zarra as the player with the most top-scorer awards in La Liga.[255] He also captured his sixth Golden Shoe award, and a record third consecutive award since the 2016-17 season.[256] On 25 May, Messi scored his final goal of the season in a 2-1 defeat to Valencia in the 2019 Copa del Rey Final.[257]

2019-20: A record sixth Ballon d’Or

On 5 August 2019, it was announced that Messi would miss Barcelona’s US tour after sustaining a right calf injury.[258] On 19 August, Messi’s chipped goal from the edge of the box against Real Betis was nominated for the 2019 FIFA Pusks Award.[259] Later that month, he suffered another setback following the return of his calf injury, which ruled him out of the opening game of the season;[260] as a result, he was sidelined indefinitely, and was only expected to return to action with Barcelona after the September international break.[261] On 2 September, Messi was shortlisted as one of the three finalists for both the 2019 FIFA Pusks Award and the 2019 Best FIFA Men’s Player Award, with Messi winning the latter on 23 September.[262][263]

Messi made his first appearance of the season on 17 September, and on 6 October he scored his first goal of the season with a free kick in a 4-0 home win over Sevilla; this was his 420th goal in La Liga, which saw him break Cristiano Ronaldo’s record of 419 goals scored in Europe’s top five leagues.[264] On 23 October, Messi scored his first Champions League goal of the season in a 2-1 away win over Slavia Prague, becoming the first player to score in 15 consecutive Champions League seasons (excluding qualifying rounds).[265] He also equalled Ral and Cristiano Ronaldo’s shared record of the most sides scored against in the competition (33).[266] On 29 October, Messi scored and assisted twice in a 5-1 home win over Real Valladolid in La Liga; his first goal – a set piece from 35 yards – was the 50th free-kick of his career.[267] His goals (608) also saw him overtake Cristiano Ronaldo’s senior goal tally (606) at club level.[268] On 9 November, Messi scored three goals (including two free kicks) in a 4-1 home win against Celta Vigo. This was his 34th hat-trick in La Liga, equalling Cristiano Ronaldo’s Spanish top-flight record.[269] On 27 November, in what was his 700th appearance for Barcelona, Messi scored one goal and assisted two more in a 3-1 home win over Borussia Dortmund in the UEFA Champions League. Borussia Dortmund was the 34th team he had scored against in the competition, breaking the previous record of 33 held by Cristiano Ronaldo and Ral.[270] On 2 December, Messi was awarded a record-breaking sixth Ballon d’Or.[271] On 8 December, Messi scored his record-breaking 35th hat-trick in La Liga with three goals in Barcelonas 5-2 home win over Mallorca.[272]

International career

2004-05: Success at youth level

As a dual Argentine-Spanish national, Messi was eligible to play for the national team of both countries.[273] Selectors for Spain’s Under-17 squad began pursuing him in 2003 after Barcelona’s director of football, Carles Rexach, alerted the Royal Spanish Football Federation to their young player. Messi declined the offer, having aspired to represent La Albiceleste since childhood. To further prevent Spain from taking him, the Argentine Football Association organised two under-20 friendlies in June 2004, against Paraguay and Uruguay, with the purpose of finalising his status as an Argentina player in FIFA. Five days after his 17th birthday, on 29 June, he made his debut for his country against Paraguay, scoring once and providing two assists in their 8-0 victory. He was subsequently included in the squad for the South American Youth Championship, held in Colombia in February 2005. As he lacked the stamina of his teammates, the result of his former growth hormone deficiency, he was used as a substitute in six of the nine games. After being named man of the match against Venezuela, he scored the winning 2-1 goal in the crucial last match against Brazil, thereby securing their third-place qualification for the FIFA World Youth Championship.[274]

Aware of his physical limitations, Messi employed a personal trainer to increase his muscle mass, returning to the squad in an improved condition in time for the World Youth Championship, hosted by the Netherlands in June 2005. After he was left out of the starting line-up in their first match against the United States, a 1-0 defeat, the squad’s senior players asked manager Francisco Ferraro to let Messi start, as they considered him their best player. After helping the team defeat Egypt and Germany to progress past the group stage, Messi proved decisive in the knockout phase as he scored their equaliser against Colombia, provided a goal and an assist against title favourites Spain, and scored their opening goal against reigning champions Brazil. Ahead of the final, he was awarded the Golden Ball as the best player of the tournament. He scored two penalties in their 2-1 victory over Nigeria, clinching Argentina’s fifth championship and finishing the tournament as top scorer with 6 goals.[275][276] His performances drew comparisons with compatriot Diego Maradona, who had led Argentina to the title in 1979.[276]

2005-06: Senior and World Cup debuts

In recognition of his achievements with the under-20 side, senior manager Jos Pkerman gave Messi his first call-up for a friendly against Hungary on 17 August 2005. Aged 18, Messi made his senior debut for Argentina in the Ferenc Pusks Stadium when he came on in the 63rd minute, only to be sent off after two minutes for a perceived foul against Vilmos Vanczk, who had grabbed his shirt; Messi had struck the defender with his arm while trying to shake him off, which the referee interpreted as an intentional elbowing, a contentious decision.[277] Messi was reportedly found weeping in the dressing room after his sending-off.[278] He returned to the team on 3 September in their World Cup qualifier defeat to Paraguay, which he had declared his “re-debut” ahead of the match.[279] Messi started his first game in the next qualifying match against Peru, in which he was able to win a crucial penalty that secured their victory. After the match, Pkerman described him as “a jewel”.[280] He subsequently made regular appearances for the team ahead of Argentina’s participation in the 2006 FIFA World Cup, scoring his first goal in a friendly against Croatia on 1 March 2006.[281] A hamstring injury sustained a week later jeopardised his presence in the World Cup, but he was nevertheless selected for Pkerman’s squad and regained fitness in time for the start of the tournament.[282]

During the World Cup in Germany, Messi witnessed their opening match victory against the Ivory Coast from the substitutes’ bench. In the next match, against Serbia and Montenegro, he became the youngest player to represent Argentina at a FIFA World Cup when he came on as a substitute in the 74th minute. He assisted their fourth strike within minutes and scored the final goal in their 6-0 victory, making him the youngest scorer in the tournament and the sixth-youngest goalscorer in the history of the World Cup.[283] As their progression to the knockout phase was secured, several starters were rested during the last group match. Messi consequently started the game against the Netherlands, a 0-0 draw, as they won their group on goal differential.[284][285] In the round of 16 match against Mexico, played on his 19th birthday, Messi came on in the 84th minute, with the score tied at 1-1. He appeared to score a goal, but it was contentiously ruled offside, with the team needing a late goal in extra time to proceed.[286][287] He did not play in the quarter-final against Germany, during which Argentina were eliminated 4-2 in a penalty shootout.[288] Back home, Pkerman’s decision to leave him on the bench against Germany led to widespread criticism from those who believed Messi could have changed the outcome of the match in Argentina’s favour.[289][290]

2007-08: Copa Amrica final and Olympic gold

Messi evades Brazil’s Marcelo in the semi-final of the 2008 Summer Olympics.

As Messi evolved into one of the best players in the world, he secured a place in Alfio Basile‘s starting line-up, as part of a team considered favourites to win the 2007 Copa Amrica, held in Venezuela.[56][291] He set up the game-winning goal of their 4-1 victory over the United States in the opening match, before winning a penalty that led to the game-tying first strike of their 4-2 win in the next match against Colombia.[292][293] As they had secured their place in the knockout phase, Messi started the next game on the bench, coming on in the last 25 minutes with the score at 0-0 to help his team defeat Paraguay by assisting their only goal. At the quarter-final stage, where the group winners faced Peru, he scored the second goal of a 4-0 victory that saw them through to the semi-final, during which he chipped the ball over Mexico’s goalkeeper to ensure another 3-0 win.[291] In a surprise defeat, Argentina lost the final 3-0 to a Brazil squad that lacked several of the nation’s best players.[294] Their unexpected loss was followed by much criticism in Argentina, though Messi was mostly exempt due to his young age and secondary status to star player Juan Romn Riquelme.[291] He was named the best young player of the tournament by CONMEBOL.[295]

Ahead of the 2008 Summer Olympics, Barcelona legally barred Messi from representing Argentina at the tournament as it coincided with their Champions League qualifying matches.[296] After interference from newly appointed Barcelona manager Pep Guardiola, who had won the tournament in 1992, Messi was permitted to join Sergio Batista‘s under-23 squad in Beijing.[297] During the first match, he scored the opening goal and assisted another in their 2-1 victory over the Ivory Coast. Following a 1-0 win in the next group match against Australia, ensuring their quarter-final qualification, Messi was rested during the game against Serbia, while his side won the match to finish first in their group. Against the Netherlands, he again scored the first goal and assisted a second strike to help his team to a 2-1 win in extra time. After a 3-0 semi-final victory over Brazil, Messi assisted the only goal in the final as Argentina defeated Nigeria to claim Olympic gold medals.[298] Along with Riquelme, Messi was singled out by FIFA as the stand-out player from the tournament’s best team.[299]

2008-11: Collective decline

From late 2008, the national team experienced a three-year period marked by poor performances.[291] Under manager Diego Maradona, who had led Argentina to World Cup victory as a player, the team struggled to qualify for the 2010 World Cup, securing their place in the tournament only after defeating Uruguay 1-0 in their last qualifying match. Maradona was criticised for his strategic decisions, which included playing Messi out of his usual position. In eight qualifying matches under Maradona’s stewardship, Messi scored only one goal, netting the opening goal in the first such match, a 4-0 victory over Venezuela.[281][300] During that game, played on 28 March 2009, he wore Argentina’s number 10 shirt for the first time, following the international retirement of Riquelme.[301] Overall, Messi scored four goals in 18 appearances during the qualifying process.[281] Ahead of the tournament, Maradona visited Messi in Barcelona to request his tactical input; Messi then outlined a 4-3-1-2 formation with himself playing behind the two strikers, a playmaking position known as the enganche in Argentine football, which had been his preferred position since childhood.[302]

Messi in action during the opening match against Bolivia in the 2011 Copa Amrica

Despite their poor qualifying campaign, Argentina were considered title contenders at the World Cup in South Africa. At the start of the tournament, the new formation proved effective; Messi managed at least four attempts on goal during their opening match but was repeatedly denied by Nigeria‘s goalkeeper, resulting in a 1-0 win. During the next match, against South Korea, he excelled in his playmaking role, participating in all four goals of his side’s 4-1 victory. As their place in the knockout phase was guaranteed, most of the starters were rested during the last group match, but Messi reportedly refused to be benched.[300] He wore the captain’s armband for the first time in their 2-0 win against Greece; as the focal point of their play, he helped create their second goal to see Argentina finish as group winners.[303] In the round of 16, they defeated Mexico 3-1, with Messi assisting their first goal, a controversial strike that stood despite being offside.[304]

Argentina were eliminated in the quarter-final against Germany, at the same stage of the tournament and by the same opponent as four years earlier. Their 4-0 loss was their worst margin of defeat since 1974.[304] FIFA subsequently identified Messi as one of the tournament’s 10 best players, citing his “outstanding” pace and creativity and “spectacular and efficient” dribbling, shooting and passing.[305] Back home, however, Messi was the subject of harsher judgement. As the perceived best player in the world, he had been expected to lead an average team to the title, as Maradona arguably did in 1986, but he had failed to replicate his performances at Barcelona with the national team, leading to the accusation that he cared less about his country than his club.[306]

Maradona was replaced by Sergio Batista, who had orchestrated Argentina’s Olympic victory. Batista publicly stated that he intended to build the team around Messi, employing him as a false nine within a 4-3-3 system, as used to much success by Barcelona.[306][307] Although Messi scored a record 53 goals during the 2010-11 club season, he had not scored for Argentina in an official match since March 2009.[109][281] Despite the tactical change, his goal drought continued during the 2011 Copa Amrica, hosted by Argentina. Their first two matches, against Bolivia and Colombia, ended in draws. Media and fans noted that he did not combine well with striker Carlos Tevez, who enjoyed greater popularity among the Argentine public; Messi was consequently booed by his own team’s supporters for the first time in his career. During the crucial next match, with Tevez on the bench, he gave a well-received performance, assisting two goals in their 3-0 victory over Costa Rica. After the quarter-final against Uruguay ended in a 1-1 draw following extra time, with Messi having assisted their equaliser, Argentina were eliminated 4-5 in the penalty shootout by the eventual champions.[306]

2011-13: Assuming the captaincy

Messi scored his first international hat-trick against Switzerland in February 2012.

After Argentina’s unsuccessful performance in the Copa Amrica, Batista was replaced by Alejandro Sabella. Upon his appointment in August 2011, Sabella awarded the 24-year-old Messi the captaincy of the squad, in accord with then-captain Javier Mascherano. Reserved by nature, Messi went on to lead his squad by example as their best player, while Mascherano continued to fulfil the role of the team’s on-field leader and motivator.[308][309] In a further redesign of the team, Sabella dismissed Tevez and brought in players with whom Messi had won the World Youth Championship and Olympic Games. Now playing in a free role in an improving team, Messi ended his goal drought by scoring during their first World Cup qualifying match against Chile on 7 October, his first official goal for Argentina in two-and-a-half years.[281][308]

Under Sabella, Messi’s goalscoring rate drastically increased; where he had scored only 17 goals in 61 matches under his previous managers, he scored 25 times in 32 appearances during the following three years.[281][308] He netted a total of 12 goals in 9 games for Argentina in 2012, equalling the record held by Gabriel Batistuta for the most goals scored in a calendar year for their country.[310] His first hat-trick with the Albicelestes came in a friendly against Switzerland on 29 February 2012, followed by two more hat-tricks over the next year-and-a-half in friendlies against Brazil and Guatemala. Messi then helped the team secure their place in the 2014 World Cup with a 5-2 victory over Paraguay on 10 September 2013; in addition to providing an assist, he scored twice from a penalty kick, taking his international tally to 37 goals to become Argentina’s second-highest goalscorer behind Batistuta. Overall, he had scored a total of 10 goals in 14 matches during the qualifying campaign.[281][311] Concurrently with his bettered performances, his relationship with his compatriots improved, as he gradually began to be perceived more favourably in Argentina.[308]

2014-15: World Cup and Copa Amrica finals

Messi watches his 25-yard curling strike hit the net against Iran to win the game for Argentina in their second group game at the 2014 FIFA World Cup

Ahead of the World Cup in Brazil, doubts persisted over Messi’s form, as he finished an unsuccessful and injury-plagued season with Barcelona. At the start of the tournament, however, he gave strong performances, being elected man of the match in their first four matches.[312] In his first World Cup match as captain, he led them to a 2-1 victory over Bosnia and Herzegovina; he helped create Sead Kolainac‘s own goal and scored their second strike after a dribble past three players, his first World Cup goal since his debut in the tournament eight years earlier.[313] During the second match against Iran, he scored an injury-time goal from 25 yards out to end the game in a 1-0 win, securing their qualification for the knockout phase.[314] He scored twice in the last group match, a 3-2 victory over Nigeria, his second goal from a free kick, as they finished first in their group.[315] Messi assisted a late goal in extra time to ensure a 1-0 win against Switzerland in the round of 16, before starting the play that led to their match-winning 1-0 goal in the quarter-final against Belgium, helping Argentina progress to the semi-final of the World Cup for the first time since 1990.[316][317] Following a 0-0 draw in extra time, they eliminated the Netherlands 4-2 in a penalty shootout to reach the final, with Messi scoring his team’s first penalty.[318]

Messi battles Germany’s Mats Hummels for the ball during the final of the 2014 FIFA World Cup.

Billed as Messi versus Germany, the world’s best player against the best team, the final was a repeat of the 1990 final featuring Diego Maradona.[319] Within the first half-hour, Messi had started the play that led to a goal, but it was ruled offside. He missed several opportunities to open the scoring throughout the match, in particular at the start of the second half when his breakaway effort went wide of the far post. Substitute Mario Gtze finally scored in the 113th minute, followed in the last minute of extra time by a free kick that Messi sent over the net, as Germany won the match 1-0 to claim the World Cup.[320] At the conclusion of the final, Messi was awarded the Golden Ball as the best player of the tournament. In addition to being the joint third-highest goalscorer, with four goals and an assist, he created the most chances, completed the most dribbling runs, made the most deliveries into the penalty area and produced the most throughballs in the competition.[312][321] However, his selection drew criticism due to his lack of goals in the knockout round; FIFA President Sepp Blatter expressed his surprise, while Maradona suggested that Messi had undeservedly been chosen for marketing purposes.[322]

Another final appearance, the third of Messi’s senior international career, followed in the 2015 Copa Amrica, held in Chile. Under the stewardship of former Barcelona manager Gerardo Martino, Argentina entered the tournament as title contenders due to their second-place achievement at the World Cup.[323][324] During the opening match against Paraguay, they were ahead two goals by half-time but lost their lead to end the match in a 2-2 draw; Messi had scored from a penalty kick, netting his only goal in the tournament.[325] Following a 1-0 win against defending champions Uruguay, Messi earned his 100th cap for his country in the final group match, a 1-0 win over Jamaica, becoming only the fifth Argentine to achieve this milestone.[326] In his 100 appearances, he had scored a total of 46 goals for Argentina, 22 of which came in official competitive matches.[281][326]

As Messi evolved from the team’s symbolic captain into a genuine leader, he led Argentina to the knockout stage as group winners.[327] In the quarter-final, they created numerous chances, including a rebound header by Messi, but were repeatedly denied by Colombia’s goalkeeper, and ultimately ended the match scoreless, leading to a 5-4 penalty shootout in their favour, with Messi netting his team’s first spot kick.[328] At the semi-final stage, Messi excelled as playmaker as he provided three assists and helped create three more goals in his side’s 6-1 victory over Paraguay, receiving applause from the initially hostile crowd.[327] Argentina started the final as the odds-on title favourites, but were defeated by Chile 4-1 in a penalty shootout after an 0-0 extra-time draw. Faced with aggression from opposing players, including taking a boot to the midriff, Messi played below his standards, though he was the only Argentine to successfully convert his penalty.[329] At the close of the tournament, he was reportedly selected to receive the Most Valuable Player award but rejected the honour.[330] As Argentina continued a trophy drought that began in 1993, the World Cup and Copa Amrica defeats again brought intense criticism for Messi from Argentine media and fans.[331]

2016: Copa Amrica Centenario, retirement, and return

Messi’s place in Argentina’s Copa Amrica Centenario squad was initially put in jeopardy when he sustained a back injury in a 1-0 friendly win over Honduras in a pre-Copa Amrica warm-up match on 27 May 2016.[332] It was later reported that he had suffered a deep bruise in his lumbar region. He was later left on the bench in Argentina’s 2-1 opening win over defending champions Chile on 6 June due to concerns regarding his fitness.[333] Although Messi was declared match-fit for his nation’s second group match against Panama on 10 June, Martino left him on the bench once again; he replaced Augusto Fernndez in the 61st minute and subsequently scored a hat-trick in 19 minutes, also starting the play which led to Sergio Agero‘s goal, as the match ended in a 5-0 victory, sealing Argentina’s place in the quarter-finals of the competition;[334] he was elected man of the match for his performance.[335]


On 18 June 2016, in the quarter-final of the Copa Amrica against Venezuela, Messi produced another man of the match performance,[337] assisting two goals and scoring another in a 4-1 victory, which enabled him to equal Gabriel Batistuta’s national record of 54 goals in official international matches.[338] This record was broken three days later when Messi scored in a 4-0 win in the semi-final of the Copa Amrica against hosts the United States; he also assisted two goals during the match as Argentina sealed a place in the final of the competition for a second consecutive year,[339] and was named man of the match once again.[340]

During a repeat of the previous year’s final on 26 June, Argentina once again lost to Chile on penalties after a 0-0 deadlock, resulting in Messi’s third consecutive defeat in a major tournament final with Argentina, and his fourth overall. After the match, Messi, who had missed his penalty in the shootout, announced his retirement from international football.[341] He stated, “I tried my hardest. The team has ended for me, a decision made.”[342] Chile coach Juan Antonio Pizzi said after the match, “My generation can’t compare him to Maradona that’s for my generation, because of what Maradona did for Argentine football. But I think the best player ever played today here in the United States.”[343] Messi finished the tournament as the second highest scorer, behind Eduardo Vargas, with five goals, and was the highest assist provider with four assists, also winning more Man of the Match awards than any other player in the tournament (3);[344] he was named to the team of the tournament for his performances, but missed out on the Golden Ball Award for best player, which went to Alexis Snchez.[345]

“Don’t go, Leo”

Following his announcement, a campaign began in Argentina for Messi to change his mind about retiring.[346] He was greeted by fans with signs like “Don’t go, Leo” when the team landed in Buenos Aires. President of Argentina Mauricio Macri urged Messi not to quit, stating, “We are lucky, it is one of life’s pleasures, it is a gift from God to have the best player in the world in a footballing country like ours… Lionel Messi is the greatest thing we have in Argentina and we must take care of him.”[347] Mayor of Buenos Aires Horacio Rodrguez Larreta unveiled a statue of Messi in the capital to convince him to reconsider retirement.[348] On social networks, NoTeVayasLeo became a global trending topic, and even a playlist on Spotify.[349] The campaign also continued in the streets and avenues of the Argentine capital, with about 50,000 supporters going to the Obelisco de Buenos Aires on 2 July, using the same slogan.[350]



Just a week after Messi announced his international retirement, Argentine newspaper La Nacin reported that he was reconsidering playing for Argentina at the 2018 FIFA World Cup qualifiers in September.[352] On 12 August, it was confirmed that Messi had reversed his decision to retire from international football, and he was included in the squad for the national team’s upcoming 2018 World Cup qualifiers.[353] On 1 September 2016, in his first game back, he scored in a 1-0 home win over Uruguay in a 2018 World Cup qualifier.[354]

Messi celebrating scoring a hat-trick against Ecuador on 10 October 2017. His goals sent Argentina through to the 2018 FIFA World Cup in Russia.

On 28 March 2017, Messi was suspended for four international games for insulting an assistant referee in a game against Chile on 23 March 2017. He was also fined CHF 10,000.[355][356] On 5 May 2017, Messi’s four match ban as well as his 10,000 CHF fine was lifted by FIFA after Argentina Football Association appealed against his suspension, which meant he could now play Argentina’s remaining World Cup Qualifiers.[357] Argentina’s place in the 2018 World Cup was in jeopardy going into their final qualifying match as they were sixth in their group, outside the five possible CONMEBOL World Cup qualifying spots, meaning they risked failing to qualify for the World Cup for the first time since 1970. On 10 October 2017, Messi led his country to World Cup qualification in scoring a hat-trick as Argentina came from behind to defeat Ecuador 3-1 away; Argentina had not defeated Ecuador in Quito since 2001.[358] Messi’s three goals saw him become the joint all-time leading scorer in CONMEBOL World Cup qualifiers with 21 goals, alongside Uruguay’s Luis Surez, overtaking the previous record which was held by compatriot Hernn Crespo.[358]

2018: World Cup


Following on from their poor qualification campaign, salvaged by Messi, expectations were not high going into the 2018 World Cup, with the team, without an injured Messi, losing 6-1 to Spain in March 2018.[360][361] Prior to Argentina’s opener, there was speculation in the media over whether this would be Messi’s final World Cup.[362] In the team’s opening group match against Iceland on 16 June, Messi missed a potential match-winning penalty in an eventual 1-1 draw.[363] In Argentina’s second game of the 2018 World Cup on 21 June, the team lost 3-0 to Croatia. Post match the Argentina coach Jorge Sampaoli spoke of the lack of quality in the team surrounding Messi, “the reality of the Argentina squad clouds his brilliance”.[364] Messi had just 49 touches of the ball and only two inside the Croatia penalty area.[365] Sampaoli stated, “we quite simply couldn’t pass to him to help him generate the situations he is used to. We worked to give him the ball but the opponent also worked hard to prevent him from getting the ball. We lost that battle.”[364] Croatia midfielder Luka Modri also stated post match, “Messi is an incredible player but he can’t do everything alone.”[365]

Messi celebrating a goal against Nigeria at the 2018 FIFA World Cup

In Argentina’s final group match against Nigeria at the Krestovsky Stadium, Saint Petersburg on 26 June, Messi scored the opening goal in an eventual 2-1 victory, becoming the third Argentine after Diego Maradona and Gabriel Batistuta to score in three different World Cups; he also became the first player to score in the World Cup in his teens, twenties, and his thirties.[366] A goal of the tournament contender, Messi received a long pass from midfield and controlled the ball on the run with two touches before striking it across goal into the net with his weaker right foot.[367][368] Argentina progressed to the second round as group runners-up behind Croatia.[369] In the round of 16 match against eventual champions France on 30 June, Messi set up Gabriel Mercado‘s and Sergio Agero’s goals in a 4-3 defeat, which saw Argentina eliminated from the World Cup.[370] With his two assists in his team’s second round fixture, Messi became the first player to provide an assist in the last four World Cups, and also became the first player to provide two assists in a match for Argentina since Diego Maradona had managed the same feat against South Korea in 1986.[371][372]

Following the tournament, Messi stated that he would not participate in Argentina’s friendlies against Guatemala and Colombia in September 2018, and commented that it would be unlikely that he would represent his nation for the remainder of the calendar year. Messi’s absence from the national team and his continued failure to win a title with Argentina prompted speculation in the media that Messi might retire from international football once again.[373] In March 2019, however, he was called up to the Argentina squad once again for the team’s friendlies against Venezuela and Morocco later that month.[374] He made his international return on 22 March, in a 3-1 friendly defeat to Venezuela, in Madrid.[375]

2019: Copa Amrica

On 21 May 2019, Messi was included in Lionel Scaloni‘s final 23-man Argentina squad for the 2019 Copa Amrica.[376] In Argentina’s second group match of the tournament on 19 June, Messi scored the equalising goal from the penalty spot in a 1-1 draw against Paraguay.[377] After coming under criticism in the media over his performance following Argentina’s 2-0 victory over Venezuela in the quarter-finals at the Maracan Stadium on 28 June, Messi commented that it had not been his best Copa Amrica, while also criticising the poor quality of the pitches.[378] Following Argentina’s 2-0 defeat to hosts Brazil in the semi-finals on 2 July, Messi was critical of the refereeing during the match.[379] In the third-place match against Chile on 6 July, Messi set-up Agero’s opening goal from a free kick in an eventual 2-1 win, to help Argentina capture the bronze medal; however, he was sent off along with Gary Medel in the 37th minute of play, after being involved in an altercation with the Chilean.[380] Following the match, Messi refused to collect his medal, and implied in a post-match interview that his comments following the semi-final led to his sending off.[381] Messi later issued an apology for his comments, but was fined $1,500 and was handed a one-match ban by CONMEBOL, which ruled him out of Argentina’s next World Cup qualifier.[382] On 2 August, Messi was banned for three months from international football and was fined $50,000 by CONMEBOL for his comments against the referee’s decisions; this ban meant he would miss Argentina’s friendly matches against Chile, Mexico and Germany in September and October.[383]

Player profile

Style of play

A versatile forward, Messi is regarded as a classic number 10.

Due to his short stature, Messi has a lower centre of gravity than taller players, which gives him greater agility, allowing him to change direction more quickly and evade opposing tackles;[384][385] this has led the Spanish media to dub him La Pulga Atmica (“The Atomic Flea”).[386][387][388] Despite being physically unimposing, he possesses significant upper-body strength, which, combined with his low centre of gravity and resulting balance, aids him in withstanding physical challenges from opponents; he has consequently been noted for his lack of diving in a sport rife with playacting.[14][385][389] His short, strong legs allow him to excel in short bursts of acceleration while his quick feet enable him to retain control of the ball when dribbling at speed.[390] His former Barcelona manager Pep Guardiola once stated, “Messi is the only player that runs faster with the ball than he does without it.”[42] Although he has improved his ability with his weaker foot since his mid-20s, Messi is predominantly a left-footed player; with the outside of his left foot, he usually begins dribbling runs, while he uses the inside of his foot to finish and provide passes and assists.[391][392]

Messi preparing to shoot with his dominant left foot during the final of the 2014 FIFA World Cup.

One of the most prolific goalscorers and clinical finishers of all time, Messi is known for his powerful and accurate striking ability from both inside and outside the area, as well as his positioning, quick reactions, and ability to make attacking runs to beat the defensive line. While he is renowned for his eye for goal, he also functions in a playmaking role, courtesy of his vision and precise passing. Moreover, he is an accurate free kick and penalty kick taker,[385][393] though his ability on penalties has somewhat deteriorated in recent seasons.[394][395][396] Although his conversion rate from free kicks was initially low towards the beginning of his career, he later developed into one of the best free kick takers in the world, and is even considered by certain pundits to be one of the greatest set piece specialists of all time.[397] Messi’s pace and technical ability enable him to undertake individual dribbling runs towards goal, in particular during counterattacks, usually starting from the halfway line or the right side of the pitch.[384][393] Widely considered to be the best dribbler in the world,[398] and one of the greatest of all time,[399] with regard to this ability, his former Argentina manager Diego Maradona has said of him, “The ball stays glued to his foot; I’ve seen great players in my career, but I’ve never seen anyone with Messi’s ball control.”[392] Beyond his individual qualities, he is also a well-rounded, hard-working team player, known for his creative combinations, in particular with former Barcelona midfielders Xavi and Andrs Iniesta.[384][385]

Messi is known for dropping deep, linking-up with midfielders, orchestrating his teams attacking plays, and creating chances for other players.

Tactically, Messi plays in a free attacking role; a versatile player, he is capable of attacking on either wing or through the centre of the pitch. His favoured position in childhood was the playmaker behind two strikers, known as the enganche in Argentine football, but he began his career in Spain as a left-winger or left-sided forward.[302] Upon his first-team debut, he was moved onto the right wing by manager Frank Rijkaard; from this position, he could more easily cut through the defence into the middle of the pitch and curl shots on goal with his left foot, rather than predominantly cross balls for teammates.[42] Under Guardiola and subsequent managers, he most often played in a false nine role; positioned as a centre-forward or lone striker, he would roam the centre, often moving deep into midfield and drawing defenders with him, in order to create and exploit spaces for passes, other teammates’ attacking runs off the ball, Messi’s own dribbling runs, or combinations with Xavi and Iniesta.[21] Under the stewardship of Luis Enrique, Messi initially returned to playing in the right-sided position that characterised much of his early career in the manager’s 4-3-3 formation,[169][400] while he was increasingly deployed in a deeper, free playmaking role in later seasons.[401][402] Under Valverde, Messi played in a variety of roles. While he occasionally continued to be deployed in a deeper role, from which he could make runs from behind into the box,[403] or even on the right wing[404] or as a false nine,[405][406] he was also used in a more offensive, central role in a 4-2-3-1,[402] or as a second striker in a 4-4-2 formation, where he was once again given the licence to drop deep, link-up with midfielders, orchestrate his teams attacking plays, and create chances for his attacking partner Surez.[407][408]

As his career advanced, and his tendency to dribble diminished slightly with age, Messi began to dictate play in deeper areas of the pitch, and developed into one of the best passers and playmakers in world football.[409][410] His work-rate off the ball and defensive responsibilities also decreased as his career progressed; by covering less ground on the pitch, and instead conserving his energy for short bursts of speed, he was able to improve his efficiency, movement, and positional play, and was also able to avoid muscular injuries, despite often playing a large number of matches throughout a particular season on a consistent basis. Indeed, while he was injury-prone in his early career, he was later able to improve his injury record by running less off the ball, and by adopting a stricter diet, training regime, and sleep schedule.[411] With the Argentina national team, Messi has similarly played anywhere along the frontline; under various managers, he has been employed on the right wing, as a false nine, as an out-and-out striker, in a supporting role alongside another forward, or in a deeper, free creative role as a classic number 10 playmaker or attacking midfielder behind the strikers.[307][412]



A prodigious talent as a teenager, Messi established himself among the world’s best players before age 20.[56] Diego Maradona considered the 18-year-old Messi the best player in the world alongside Ronaldinho, while the Brazilian himself, shortly after winning the Ballon d’Or, commented, “I’m not even the best at Bara,” in reference to his protg.[413][414] Four years later, after Messi had won his first Ballon d’Or by a record margin,[70] the public debate regarding his qualities as a player moved beyond his status in contemporary football to the possibility that he was the greatest player in history.[10][389][415] An early proponent was his then-manager Pep Guardiola, who, as early as August 2009, declared Messi to be the best player he had ever seen.[416] In the following years, this opinion gained greater acceptance among pundits, managers, former and current players,[111][417] and by the end of Bara’s second treble-winning season, Messi’s superiority, ahead of Maradona and Pel, had become the predominant view among insiders in continental Europe.[418][419] A frequent dismissal, however, has centred on the fact that Messi has not won the FIFA World Cup with Argentina, leading some in the sport to instead cite him as the best club player in history.[420]

Argentina fans with Messi and Maradona banners at the 2018 World Cup in Russia

Throughout his career, Messi has been compared with his compatriot Diego Maradona, due to their similar playing styles as diminutive, left-footed dribblers. Initially, he was merely one of many young Argentine players, including his boyhood idol Pablo Aimar, to receive the “New Maradona” moniker, but as his career progressed, Messi proved his similarity beyond all previous contenders, establishing himself as the greatest player Argentina had produced since Maradona.[18][300]Jorge Valdano, who won the 1986 World Cup alongside Maradona, said in October 2013, “Messi is Maradona every day. For the last five years, Messi has been the Maradona of the World Cup in Mexico.”[421]Csar Menotti, who as manager orchestrated their 1978 World Cup victory, echoed this sentiment when he opined that Messi plays “at the level of the best Maradona”.[422] Other notable Argentines in the sport, such as Osvaldo Ardiles, Javier Zanetti, and Diego Simeone, have expressed their belief that Messi has overtaken Maradona as the best player in history.[423][424][425]

In Argentine society, Messi is generally held in lesser esteem than Maradona, a consequence of not only his perceived uneven performances with the national team, but also of differences in class, personality, and background. Messi is in some ways the antithesis of his predecessor: where Maradona was an extroverted, controversial character who rose to greatness from the slums, Messi is reserved and unassuming, an unremarkable man outside of football.[273][426][427] An enduring mark against him is the fact that, although through no fault of his own, he never proved himself in the Argentine Primera Divisin as an upcoming player, achieving stardom overseas from a young age,[14][273] while his lack of outward passion for the Albiceleste shirthe does not sing the national anthem and is disinclined to emotional displayshave in the past led to the false perception that he felt Catalan rather than truly Argentine.[306] Despite having lived in Spain since age 13, Messi has said: “Argentina is my country, my family, my way of expressing myself. I would change all my records to make the people in my country happy.”[428] Moreover, several pundits and footballing figures, including Maradona, have also questioned Messi’s leadership with Argentina at times, despite his playing ability.[429][430][431] In November 2016, with the Argentine Football Association being run by a FIFA committee for emergency due to an economic crisis, it was reported that three of the national team’s security staff told Messi that they haven’t been given their salaries for six months. He stepped in and paid the salaries of the three members.[432][433]

Comparisons to Cristiano Ronaldo

Messi has been compared to Cristiano Ronaldo (left) throughout much of their careers.

Among his contemporary peers, Messi is most often compared and contrasted with Portuguese forward Cristiano Ronaldo, as part of an ongoing rivalry that has been compared to past sports rivalries like the Muhammad AliJoe Frazier rivalry in boxing, the Bjrn BorgJohn McEnroe rivalry in tennis, and the Ayrton SennaAlain Prost rivalry from Formula One motor racing.[434][435] Although Messi has at times denied any rivalry,[436][437] they are widely believed to push one another in their aim to be the best player in the world:[157] since 2008, Messi has won six Ballons d’Or to Ronaldo’s five,[438] six FIFA World’s Best Player awards to Ronaldo’s five, and six European Golden Shoes to Ronaldo’s four.[439] Pundits and fans regularly argue the individual merits of both players;[157][440] beyond their playing styles, the debate also revolves around their differing physiquesRonaldo is 1.87 m (6 ft 1 1⁄2 in) with a muscular buildand contrasting public personalities, with Ronaldo’s self-confidence and theatrics a foil to Messi’s humility.[441][442][443] From 2009-10 to 2017-18, Messi faced Ronaldo at least twice every season in El Clsico, which ranks among the world’s most viewed annual sports events.[444] Off the pitch, Ronaldo is his direct competitor in terms of salary, sponsorships, and social media fanbase.[444]

In popular culture

According to France Football, Messi was the world’s highest-paid footballer for five years out of six between 2009 and 2014; he was the first player to exceed the 40 million benchmark, with earnings of 41 million in 2013, and the 50-60 million points, with income of 65 million in 2014.[162][445] Messi was second on Forbes list of the world’s highest-paid athletes (after Cristiano Ronaldo) with income of $81.4 million from his salary and endorsements in 2015-16.[446] In 2018 he was the first player to exceed the 100m benchmark for a calendar year, with earnings of 126m ($154m) in combined income from salaries, bonuses and endorsements.[447]Forbes ranked him the world’s highest-paid athlete in 2019.[448] Since 2008, he has been Barcelona’s highest-paid player, receiving a salary that increased incrementally from 7.8 million to 13 million over the next five years.[76][77][143] Signing a new Barcelona contract in 2017, he earns $667,000 per week in wages, and Barcelona also paid him $59.6 million as a signing on bonus.[449] His buyout clause is set at $835 million (700 million).[449]


In addition to his salary and bonuses, much of his income derives from endorsements; SportsPro has consequently cited him as one of the world’s most marketable athletes every year since their research began in 2010.[451] His main sponsor since 2006 is the sportswear company Adidas. As Barcelona’s leading youth prospect, he had been signed with Nike since age 14, but transferred to Adidas after they successfully challenged their rival’s claim to his image rights in court.[452] Over time, Messi established himself as their leading brand endorser;[444] from 2008, he had a long-running signature collection of Adidas F50 boots, and in 2015, he became the first footballer to receive his own sub-brand of Adidas boots, the Adidas Messi.[453][454] Since 2017, Messi has worn the latest version of the Adidas Nemeziz.[455] In 2015, a Barcelona jersey with Messis name and number (Messi, 10) was the best-selling replica jersey worldwide.[456]

After blessing himself, Messi often celebrates a goal by pointing a finger on each hand towards the sky in dedication to his late grandmother.[457] His goal celebration features in the FIFA video game series, first appearing in FIFA 14

As a commercial entity, Messi’s marketing brand has been based exclusively on his talents and achievements as a player, in contrast to arguably more glamorous players like Cristiano Ronaldo and David Beckham. At the start of his career, he thus mainly held sponsorship contracts with companies that employ sports-oriented marketing, such as Adidas, Pepsi, and Konami.[458][459] From 2010 onwards, concurrently with his increased achievements as a player, his marketing appeal widened, leading to long-term endorsement deals with luxury brands Dolce & Gabbana and Audemars Piguet.[458][460] Messi is also a global brand ambassador for Gillette, Turkish Airlines, Ooredoo, and Tata Motors, among other companies.[461][462][463][464] Additionally, Messi was the face of Konami’s video game series Pro Evolution Soccer, appearing on the covers of PES 2009, PES 2010, PES 2011 and PES 2020. He subsequently signed with rival company EA Sports to become the face of their series FIFA and has since appeared on four consecutive covers from FIFA 13 to FIFA 16.[465][466] His ‘Point to the Sky’ goal celebration first appears in FIFA 14.[467]

Fans of Messi in India decorated this vehicle

Messi’s global popularity and influence are well documented. He was among the Time 100, an annual list of the world’s most influential people as published by Time, in 2011 and 2012.[468][469] His fanbase on the social media website Facebook is among the largest of all public figures: within seven hours of its launch in April 2011, his Facebook page had nearly seven million followers, and by November 2013, he had become only the second sportsperson, after Cristiano Ronaldo, to amass over 50 million followers.[470][471] He has over 130 million Instagram followers, the second highest for a sportsperson, after Cristiano Ronaldo.[472] According to a 2014 survey by sports research firm Repucom in 15 international markets, Messi was familiar to 87% of respondents around the world, of whom 78% perceived him favourably, making him the second-most recognised player globally, behind Ronaldo, and the most likable of all contemporary players.[473][474]

Other events have illustrated Messi’s presence in popular culture. A solid gold replica of his left foot, weighing 25 kg (55 lb) and valued at $5.25 million, went on sale in Japan in March 2013 to raise funds for victims of the 2011 Thoku earthquake and tsunami.[475] A 2013 Turkish Airlines advertisement starring Messi, in which he engages in a selfie competition with then-Los Angeles Lakers star Kobe Bryant, was the most-watched ad on YouTube in the year of its release, receiving 137 million views, and was subsequently voted the best advertisement of the 2005-15 decade to commemorate YouTube’s founding.[476][477]World Press Photo selected “The Final Game”, a photograph of Messi facing the World Cup trophy after Argentina’s final defeat to Germany, as the best sports image of 2014.[478]Messi, a documentary about his life by filmmaker lex de la Iglesia, premiered at the Venice Film Festival in August 2014.[479] Born in a zoo at Saransk, Mordovia, Russia in late 2015, Messi, a pet cougar who became popular on social media, was named after the player.[480]

Personal life

Family and relationships

Since 2008, Messi has been in a relationship with Antonella Roccuzzo, a fellow native of Rosario.[481] He has known Roccuzzo since he was five years old, as she is the cousin of his best friend since childhood, Lucas Scaglia, who is also a football player.[482] After keeping their relationship private for a year, Messi first confirmed their romance in an interview in January 2009, before going public a month later during a carnival in Sitges after the Barcelona-Espanyol derby.

Messi pictured in July 2014

In addition to his work with UNICEF, Messi founded his own charitable organisation, the Leo Messi Foundation, which supports access to health care, education, and sport for children.[499] It was established in 2007 following a visit Messi paid to a hospital for terminally ill children in Boston, an experience that resonated with him to the point that he decided to reinvest part of his earnings into society.[493] Through his foundation, Messi has awarded research grants, financed medical training, and invested in the development of medical centres and projects in Argentina, Spain, and elsewhere in the world.[493][500] In addition to his own fundraising activities, such as his global “Messi and Friends” football matches, his foundation receives financial support from various companies to which he has assigned his name in endorsement agreements, with Adidas as their main sponsor.[501][502]

Messi has also invested in youth football in Argentina: he financially supports Sarmiento, a football club based in the Rosario neighbourhood where he was born, committing in 2013 to the refurbishment of their facilities and the installation of all-weather pitches, and funds the management of several youth players at Newell’s Old Boys and rival club Rosario Central, as well as at River Plate and Boca Juniors in Buenos Aires.[493] At Newell’s Old Boys, his boyhood club, he funded the 2012 construction of a new gymnasium and a dormitory inside the club’s stadium for their youth academy. His former youth coach at Newell’s, Ernesto Vecchio, is employed by the Leo Messi Foundation as a talent scout for young players.[14] On 7 June 2016, Messi won a libel case against La Razn newspaper and was awarded 65,000 in damages, which he donated to the charity Mdecins Sans Frontires.[503]

Tax fraud

Messi’s financial affairs came under investigation in 2013 for suspected tax evasion. Offshore companies in tax havens Uruguay and Belize were used to evade 4.1 million in taxes related to sponsorship earnings between 2007 and 2009. An unrelated shell company in Panama, set up in 2012, was subsequently identified as belonging to the Messis in the Panama Papers data leak. Messi, who pleaded ignorance of the alleged scheme, voluntarily paid arrears of 5.1 million in August 2013. On 6 July 2016, Messi and his father were both found guilty of tax fraud and were handed suspended 21-month prison sentences and respectively ordered to pay 1.7 million and 1.4 million in fines.[504] Facing the judge, he said, “I just played football. I signed the contracts because I trusted my dad and the lawyers and we had decided that they would take charge of those things.”[505]

Career statistics


As of match played 19 January 2020

Appearances and goals by club, season and competitionClubSeasonLeagueCopa del ReyChampions LeagueOtherTotalDivisionAppsGoalsAppsGoalsAppsGoalsAppsGoalsAppsGoalsBarcelona C2003-04[506]Tercera Divisin105105Barcelona B2003-04[39]Segunda Divisin B50502004-05[40]176176Total22112211Barcelona2004-05[40]La Liga711010912005-06[54]1762161002582006-07[57]261422513[a]036172007-08[72]2810309640162008-09[80]31238612951382009-10[93]3534311184[b]453472010-11[109]33317713122[c]355532011-12[114]37507311145[d]660732012-13[153]3246541182[c]250602013-14[160]312865782[c]046412014-15[507]384365131057582015-16[508]332655764[e]449412016-17[509]3437759112[c]152542017-18[510]3634641062[c]154452018-19[511]34365310121[c]050512019-20[512]151400521[c]12117Total46743373511401142822708620Career total49944473511401142822740631

  1. ^ One appearance in UEFA Super Cup, two appearances in Supercopa de Espaa
  2. ^ One appearance in UEFA Super Cup, one appearance and two goals in Supercopa de Espaa, two appearances and two goals in FIFA Club World Cup
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Appearance(s) in Supercopa de Espaa
  4. ^ One appearance and one goal in UEFA Super Cup, two appearances and three goals in Supercopa de Espaa, two appearances and two goals in FIFA Club World Cup
  5. ^ One appearance and two goals in UEFA Super Cup, two appearances and one goal in Supercopa de Espaa, one appearance and one goal in FIFA Club World Cup


See also: List of international goals scored by Lionel Messi

As of 18 November 2019

Appearances and goals by national team, year and competitionTeamYearCompetitiveFriendlyTotalAppsGoalsAppsGoalsAppsGoalsArgentina U20[274][275]20042323200516[a]111611Total1611231814Argentina U23[298]20085[b]25[]2Total5252Argentina[281][513]20053[c]0205020063[d]14172200710[e]44214620086[c]1218220098[c]12210320105[d]05210220118[f]25213420125[c]54791220135[c]3237620147[d]47414820156[g]12384201610[h]81011820175[c]4207420184[d]1135420196[g]144105Total9136473413870Career total11249493716186

  1. ^ a b Does not include an appearance for Argentina U23 against the unofficial Catalonia team in May 2008.[4]
  1. ^ Nine appearances and five goals in the 2005 South American U-20 Championship, seven appearances and six goals in the 2005 FIFA World Youth Championship
  2. ^ Appearances in Summer Olympics
  3. ^ a b c d e f Appearances in FIFA World Cup qualification
  4. ^ a b c d Appearances in FIFA World Cup
  5. ^ Six appearances and two goals in Copa Amrica, four appearances and two goals in FIFA World Cup qualification
  6. ^ Four appearances in Copa Amrica, four appearances and two goals in FIFA World Cup qualification
  7. ^ a b Appearances in Copa Amrica
  8. ^ Five appearances and three goals in FIFA World Cup qualification, five appearances and five goals in Copa Amrica Centenario

Honours and achievements

For a comprehensive listing of Messi’s achievements, see List of career achievements by Lionel Messi.


Argentina U20

Argentina U23


Messi (left) accepting the Golden Ball award from Neymar after the 2011 FIFA Club World Cup Final