The Red Fort is a famous historic fort within the city of Delhi (Capital of India) (in Old Delhi) in India that served because the main residence of many Mughal Emperors. Emperor Shah Jahan ordered construction of the Red Fort on 12 May 1638, when he pronounced to shift his capital from Agra to Delhi. Originally red and white, its design`s credit goest to architect Ustad Ahmad Lahori, who was also the constructer of the Taj Mahal. It was constructed between (May 1639 – April 1648).
The most important surviving structures are the ramparts and the walls, the gates, the audience halls and the imperial apartments on the eastern riverbank.
The Lahori Gate is the main gate to the Red Fort, and is named for its orientation towards the town of Lahore (now in Pakistan). During Aurangzeb’s reign, the sweetness of the gate was spoiled by the addition of bastions, which Shah Jahan described as “a veil drawn across the face of a gorgeous woman”. Every Indian Independence Day since 1947, the ensign is unfurled and therefore the prime minister makes a speech from its ramparts.
The Delhi Gate is that the southern public entrance and is analogous in layout and appearance to the Lahori Gate. Two life-size stone elephants on either side of the gate face one another.
Adjacent to the Lahori Gate is that the Chhatta Chowk (or Meena Bazaar), where silk, jewellery and other items for the imperial household were sold during the Mughal period. This market was earlier referred to as Bazaar-i-Musaqqaf (the market with saqaf, meaning roof), or Chatta-bazaar (a roofed market). Lahori Gate which is the doorway portal of the Red Fort, guides into an open outer court, where it crosses the massive north–South Street which previously divided the fort’s from the palaces (to the east),military functions (to the west). The southern end of the road is that the Delhi Gate
The two southernmost pavilions of the palace are zenanas (women’s quarters), consisting of the Mumtaz Mahal built for Arjumand Banu Begum (Mumtaz Mahal) chief consort of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan and therefore the larger Rang Mahal a resort for royal women. The Mumtaz Mahal houses the Red Fort Archaeological Museum.
The Rang Mahal housed the emperor’s wives and mistresses. Its name means “Palace of Colours”, since it had been brightly painted and decorated with a mosaic of mirrors. The marble pool in the center is fed by the Nahr-i-Bihisht (“River of Paradise”)
The Khas Mahal was the emperor’s apartment. It was cooled by the Nahr-i-Bihisht. Connected thereto is that the Muthamman Burj, an octagonal tower where he appeared before the people waiting on the riverbank. This was done by almost every king at the time.
In Persian, Diwan means “The Official Hall”, Khas: means “Special guests or dignitaries” and Aam: means “the common person”. So this was a building for the official affairs and requests of the novelty and royalt . A gate on the side of the Diwan-i-Aam results in the innermost court of the palace (Jalau Khana) and therefore the Diwan-i-Khas (Hall of personal Audience). It is constructed of white marble, inlaid with precious stones. The once-silver ceiling has been restored in wood. François Bernier described seeing the jewelled Peacock Throne here during the 17th century